the military context); Tempo, Inc. v. Goodall Rubber Co., 603 F. Supp. 1359, 1361 (E.D. Pa. 1985) (firefighting apparel).

536.  

772 F.2d 844 (11th Cir. 1985).

537.  

Id.

538.  

Id. at 846.

539.  

991 F.2d 1117 (3d Cir.), cert. denied, 510 U.S. 868 (1993).

540.  

Id. at 1124.

541.  

Id. at 1122, 1124-25.

542.  

See FRUMER & FRIEDMAN, supra note 534, § 31.01 (footnotes omitted).

543.  

Ryan v. Feeney & Sheehan Bldg. Co., 145 N.E. 321, 321-22 (N.Y. 1924) (noting that "[a] builder or contractor is justified in relying upon the plans and specification which he has contracted to follow").

544.  

541. See FRUMER & FRIEDMAN, supra note 534, § 31.01.

545.  

28 U.S.C. § 2680(a) (1994) (immunity applies to "the exercise or performance or failure to exercise or perform a discretionary function or duty on the part of a federal agency or an employee of the Government, whether or not the discretion is abused").

546.  

346 U.S. 15 (1953).

547.  

Id. at 34.

548.  

Id. at 35.

549.  

Id. at 35-36.

550.  

661 F. Supp. 1159 (N.D. Miss. 1987).

551.  

Id. at 1162.

552.  

Id. at 1163.

553.  

U.S. CONST. art. VI, cl. 2 (known as the Supremacy Clause).

554.  

See Cipollone v. Liggett Group, Inc., 505 U.S. 504, 527 (1992) (noting that state tort judgments are a form of state regulation that, if inconsistent with federal law, may run afoul of the Supremacy Clause; thus dismissing various tort claims as preempted by the Cigarette Labeling Act).

555.  

15 U.S.C. § 1331 (1994).

556.  

7 U.S.C. § 136(p) (1994).

557.  

National Vaccine Injury Compensation Act, 42 U.S.C. §§ 300aa-10 to 300aa-33 (1988). Victims who waive their rights to sue vaccine manufacturers may receive compensation under the program. Id. §§ 300aa-14, 300aa-21. Claimants may recover benefits for medical care, death, lost earnings, and pain and suffering, id. § 300aa-15(d)(1), merely by proving causation, id. §§ 300aa-11, 300aa-13(a)(1)(A), 300aa-14. Victims who do not file a claim may still opt to sue the manufacturer, subject to some legislatively imposed limitations. Id. §§ 300aa-11, 22-(b), 300-22(c), 300aa-23(d)(2); see also Barbara A. Boczar, Symposium, Biotechnology and Tort Liability; A Strategic Industry at Risk, 55 U. PITT. L. REV. 791, 850-852 (1994).

558.  

Title IV of the Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969, Pub. L. No. 91-173, §§ 101-426, 83 Stat. 792 (codified in scattered sections of 30 U.S.C.), better known as the "Black Lung Act," provides benefits to disabled minors who suffer from pneumoconiosis and surviving dependents, 30 U.S.C. § 901 (1988); establishes rebuttable presumptions that the disease arose out of employment if one worked long enough in mining, id. 921(c)(1), and those who died of respiratory disease and worked 10 plus years presumed to have died of pneumoconiosis, id. § 921(c)(2). See also Boczar, supra note 557, at 855-856; see generally EARNEST GELLHORN, THE "BLACK LUNG" ACT: AN ANALYSIS OF LEGAL ISSUES RAISED UNDER THE BENEFIT PROGRAM CREATED BY THE FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969 (AS AMENDED) (1981).

559.  

The Swine Flu Act, Pub. L. No. 94-380, § 2, 90 Stat. 1113 (1976).



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