• Because understanding of what drives R&D and determines R&D performance is incomplete and there is uncertainty about what questions to ask, a section of each survey should be dedicated to experimental, exploratory questions.
  • Prospective data users, including research analysts, policy makers, and business executives, should participate in preparing the questions.
  • Draft survey instruments should be pretested informally with prospective respondents.
  • Designing surveys that enable cross-national comparisons is very useful but should not override the need to develop quality survey instruments using high standards.

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