• arising from changes occurring in the processes of industrial innovation. In Europe this activity takes the form of the European Union-wide Community Innovation Survey; in Canada it takes the form of a series of more narrowly focused surveys. The NSF should consider collecting this type of information regularly, building upon its 1994 pilot effort and drawing on the experience of other governments and international scholars in designing such a program.
  • Conduct technology use surveys. U.S. and other national surveys of manufacturing technology adoption and application have produced enterprise level data useful in understanding the relationships among new technology applications, firm performance and productivity, and workforce characteristics such as skill levels, wages, and job turnover. The federal government should consider undertaking periodic surveys of technology adoption and use in both the manufacturing and service sectors.

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