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This publication was supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Science Foundation. Program support for the Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy is provided by a grant from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation.

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Cover: The emblem appearing on the cover of this publication is an illustration of the bronze medallion in the floor of the Great Hall in the National Academy of Sciences building in Washington, D.C. The medallion is the wellhead placed in the floor when the spectroscopic case over which the Foucault pendulum swings is lowered below floor level. The design is based on a map of the solar system published in 1661 by Andreas Cellarius Palatinus. The array of the planets is the Copernican system as known to Galileo.

Copyright © 1997 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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