to learn the efficacy of the missions. Then too, many of the experiments may never be published, especially if they were not considered a scientific success by the PI. There is therefore a need for proceedings of international cooperation in microgravity research and life sciences. Moreover, in formulating international missions in microgravity research and life sciences, partners should reach agreements that articulate how the results are going to be disseminated and identify the obligations of all PIs to contribute to a single book on mission results. However, the format of such a publication should be such that the material would not preclude parallel publication in refereed journals.83 An example to be followed is that of the D-2 mission, which published a single volume containing information and basic findings from every experiment on the mission.84


Considering the potential for difficulties in managing these complex international missions, the management succeeded better than anyone could have expected. Some problems arose, and there were too many levels of management between the PI and the mission, but few concrete suggestions were made about ways to improve mission management. There were suggestions, however, about the need for better communication between the agencies. European scientists need to be better informed about NASA's requirements, rules, and procedures. Similarly, U.S. scientists need to understand that the administrative structure for spaceflight experiments is somewhat different in Europe. Improving these types of communication might make it easier for European scientists to adjust to some of NASA's requirements.


IML-1 "Quick Look," documentation dated April 6, 1992; IML-1 Brochure IML-1 payload confirmation documentation; correspondence from Dr. Robert Snyder, mission scientist for IML-1 and IML-2, dated May 13, 1996; IML-2 payload confirmation documentation, dated January 12, 1993.


Sahm, P.R., Keller, M.H., and Schiewe, B., eds., Proceedings of the Norderney Symposium on Scientific Results of the German Spacelab Mission D-2, March 14-16, 1994, Norderney, Germany, Wissenschaffliehe Projcktfuhrung D-2 Mission, Cologne, Germany, 1995.

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