TABLE A.1 U.S.-European International Cooperative Spacecraft Experiments in Earth Science from Space

Launch Year

Mission Name

Cooperating Countries

Experiment or Space Science Objectives

1964

Ariel-II

GBa-US

Measuring atmospheric ozone

1965

OGO-2

Fb

Photometer to measure airglow

1966

OGO-3 (POGO)

Fb

See OGO-2

1967

Ariel-III

GBa-US

Measure vertical distribution of molecular oxygen in Earth atmosphere

1967

OGO-4

Fb

See OGO-2

1968

GEOS

Db

Determine size and shape of Earth and conduct gravitational field studies

1969

OGO-6

Fb

Measure altitude distribution and width of atomic oxygen line in airglow and aurora

1970

Nimbus-4

GBb

Selective chopper radiometric temperature probe

1971

EOLE

Fa-US

French satellite to study meteorological data in the Southern Hemisphere

1971

BIC

Da-US

Electric and magnetic cloud probe field studies

1972

NIMBUS-5

GBb

See NIMBUS-4

1975

NIMBUS-6

GBc-Fc

Upper atmospheric sounding; random-access measurement system

1975

Atmospheric Explorer

GBb

Airglow photometer

1978

TIROS-N

GBb-Fb

Atmospheric sounding radiometer; Advanced Research and Global Observations Satellite flew on eight satellites in the TIROS-N series

1978

NIMBUS-7

GBb-Fb

Radiometer for atmospheric and mesospheric sounding; ARGOSc

1983

STS-9/Spacelab-1

ESAd-Db-US

Microwave remote sensing experiment and metric camera for Earth observations (2)

1990

CRRES

Db

Study of Earth's magnetic fields

1991

STS-40/UARS

UKb-US

Upper atmospheric observations

1992

TOPEX-POSEIDON

F-US

Joint Centre National d'Études Spatiales-National Aeronautics and Space Administration mission to study relationship between Earth's oceans and climate

1992

LAGEOS-2

I-US

Improve geodetic reference datum (geoid) and Earth orientation, and measure crustal deformation, secular variation in Earth's gravity field, and wandering of Earth's polar axis and Earth rotation variations

1992

Eureca-1

ESA-US

Several Earth science experiments

1992

STS-45/ATLAS-1

Bb-Fb-Db-US

ATLAS 1-3: three missions to study the middle atmosphere and its variations

1993

STS-55/Spacelab D2

ESA-Db-US

Modular optoelectric multispectral scanner used to study atmospheric variations; also flown on two SPAS flights

1993

STS-56/ATLAS-2

Bb-Fb-Db-US

ATLAS 1-3: three missions to study the middle

1994

STS-66/ATLAS-3

Bb-Fb-Db-US

atmosphere and its variations

1994

STS-66/CRISTA-SPAS

D-US

Combined experiment with ATLAS-3 to study atmospheric variability

1994

STS-59/SRL-1

US-Db-Ib

X-SAR as part of SIR-C

1994

STS-68/SRL-2

US-Db-Ib

X-SAR as part of SIR-C

1997

STS-85/CRISTA-SPAS II

D-US

Experiments using CRISTA and MAHRSI instruments to study middle atmosphere and lower thermosphere



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