TABLE A.3 U.S.-European International Cooperative Ventures in Space Sciences

Launch Year

Mission Name

Cooperating Countries

Space Science Objectives or Remarks

1962

Ariel-I

GBa-US

Measure energy spectrum of cosmic rays and solar x-rays

1964

Ariel-II

GBa-US

Measure galactic radio noise and micrometeoroid flux

1964

Explorer 20

GBb

Measure ion mass composition and temperature

1964

San Marco-I

Ia-US

Atmospheric physics; launched from Wallops by Italian launch crew

1965

Explorer 31 DME-A

GBb

Measure ion mass composition and temperature, and electron temperature

1965

FR-1

Fa-US

Study very low frequency wavefields in magnetosphere and irregularities in ionosphere

1965

OSO-2

GBb-Fb

Conduct multiple solar research experiments

1967

San Marco-II

Ia-US

Ionospheric propagation studies; first launch from San Marco platform

1967

Ariel-III

GBa-US

Multiple atmospheric physics measurements

1967

OSO-4

GBb

Measure distribution of total solar x-ray emissions

1967

Pioneer-8

Ib

Flux gate magnetometer

1968

OGO-5

GBb-Fb-NLb

Determine direction of incidence of primary cosmic rays and density or temperature of hydrogen in geocorona; measure energy spectrum of cosmic ray electrons

1968

ESRO-2 (IRIS)

ESROa-US

Study solar x-rays and cosmic radiation in Van Allen belt

1968

ESRO-1A (Aurorae)

ESROa-US

Measure particles impinging on polar ionosphere

1968

HEOS-1

ESROa

Study interplanetary magnetic fields and cosmic ray particles

1969

OSO-5

Fb-GBb

Measure solar x-ray flux and self-reversal of Lyman-Alpha line

1969

Apollo 11

CHb

Measure composition of solar wind

1969

OSO-6

Ib-GBb

Study solar helium I and helium II resonance radiation

1969

ESRO-1B (Boreas)

ESROa

Study ionospheric and auroral phenomena (polar orbiter)

1969

GRS-A (Azur-1)

Dc-US

Study of inner Van Allen belt and auroral zones

1969

Apollo 12

CHb

Measure composition of solar wind

1970

Explorer 42

I

First x-ray satellite, Scout launched from San Marco platform

1971

Apollo 14

Chb

Measure composition of solar wind

1971

San Marco-III

Ic-US

Study local density of equatorial upper atmosphere, San Marco launch

1971

Apollo 15

CHb

Measure composition of solar wind

1971

Explorer 45

Ib

Study of inner magnetosphere; San Marco launch

1971

Ariel-IV

GBa-US

Measure VLF radiation and cosmic radio noise

1972

HEOS-2

ESROa

Investigate particles and micrometeorites in space

1972

Pioneer 10

Db-US

Investigation of Jupiter and interplanetary medium

1972

TD-1

ESROa

Study high-energy emissions from stellar and galactic sources

1972

Apollo-16

CHb

Measure composition of solar wind

1972

Explorer 46

Db

Cosmic dust detectors on Meteoroid Technology Satellite

1972

OAO-3

GBb

Study stellar ultraviolet (UV) and x-ray emissions

1972

Explorer 48

I-US

Small astronomy satellite to study gamma rays; San Marco Launch

1972

ESRO-4

ESROa

Investigate ionosphere, magnetosphere; auroral and solar particles

1972

Aeros

Da-US

Measure solar extreme UV and correlate with upper atmosphere components

1973

Skylab

Fb-CHb

Sky survey, distribution of galaxies and ionized hydrogen; solar wind analysis



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