european space agency
agence spatiale européenne
Paris, 13 JUNE 1994
The Honorable Albert Gore, Jr.
Vice President of the United States
Old Executive Office Building
Washington, DC 20501
Dear Mr. Vice President,
I have recently received a number of disturbing reports that suggest that the continuation of the joint U.S./European CASSINI mission could be threatened by ongoing Congressional deliberations on NASA's FY95 Appropriations Bill.
I am aware that the House version of the Bill, as marked up by the House VA-HUD and Independent Agencies Subcommittee on June 9, retains the necessary funding for NASA's portion of the mission. However, I am also aware that the House Subcommittee's Senate counterpart is faced with a more stringent budget allocation. I am told that the Subcommittee Chair, Senator Mikuiski, has indicated that without an increase in said allocation, termination of a major NASA programme would have to be contemplated, with specific reference being made to the CASSINI mission.
In the field of space science, CASSINI is the most significant planetary mission presently being undertaken by either the European Space Agency (ESA) or NASA, involving the exploration of Saturn, the most complex planet in the solar system and of its Moon, Titan. It is expected to provide at least a ten-fold increase in our knowledge of both bodies as compared to NASA's highly successful Voyager mission.
In making the commitment to participate with the U.S. in 1989, ESA oriented its overall space science programme in order to select this cooperative project, rather than opt for one of a number of purely European alternatives that were proposed at the same time. This decision was taken on the basis of scientific merit and in the belief that the cooperation would be of major benefit to both the U.S. and European scientific communities as well as the international science community in general. Over the past five years, while ESA's Long-Term Space Plan has been forced to undergo a series of significant revisions, driven primarily by our own budget limitations, the Member States have maintained a full commitment to the space science portion of the plan, of which CASSINI is an essential component.
To date, the Member State governments of ESA have committed around $300 Million to our portion of the mission (the Huygens Probe that will descend into the atmosphere of Saturn's Moon Titan, and several elements of the Saturn Orbiter Payload), of which two-thirds have already been spent, and have committed to a further expenditure of around $100 Million