NOTE to Tables 3.1 and 3.2: AMPTE = Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorer; EOS = Earth Observing System; ESA = European Space Agency; GMM = Generic Mars Mission; HST = Hubble Space Telescope; IML = International Microgravity Laboratory; INTEGRAL = International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory; ISEE = International Sun-Earth Explorer; ISPM = International Solar Polar Mission [renamed Ulysses]; NASA = National Aeronautics and Space Administration; ROSAT = Roentgen Satellite; SOHO = Solar and Heliospheric Observatory; TOPEX = (Ocean) Topography Experiment; UARS = Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite.
a SOHO is used by both astrophysicists and space physicists. Its mission addresses both disciplines. For the purposes of this study, SOHO was analyzed as an astrophysics mission.
Were there issues of competition versus cooperation? Did the desire to protect technological leadership create problems?
What benefits did the cooperation actually produce?
Which agreements succeeded and which did not, in both scientific and programmatic terms?
The questions are not formally asked and answered for each mission case study but serve instead as guideposts. In the end, the joint committee sought to know and present the lessons learned and how they can be applied in the future.
The four missions selected—the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), the Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT), the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), and the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL)—span a wide range of involvement by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and by space agencies in Europe. They also involve a variety of subdisciplines, mission sizes, and degrees of complexity.