• Develop the observational and computational tools and strategies that policy makers need to effectively manage ozone pollution; elucidate the processes that control and the relationships that exist among ozone precursor species, tropospheric ozone, and the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere.

  • Improve atmospheric models to better represent current atmospheric oxidants and predict the atmosphere's response to future levels of pollutants.

  • Document the chemical and physical properties of atmospheric aerosols; elucidate the chemical and physical processes that determine the size, concentration, and chemical characteristics of atmospheric aerosols.

  • Document the rates of chemical exchange between the atmosphere and ecosystems of critical economic and environmental import; elucidate the extent to which interactions between the atmosphere and biosphere are influenced by changing concentrations and depositions of harmful and beneficial compounds.

Finding 1.2e: Within Paleoclimate the following central scientific issues must be confronted:

  • Document how the global climate and the Earth's environment have changed in the past and determine the factors that caused those changes. Explore how this knowledge can be applied to understand future climate and environmental change.

  • Document how the activities of humans have affected the global environment and climate and determine how those effects can be differentiated from natural variability. Describe what constitutes the natural environment prior to human intervention.

  • Explore the question of what the natural limits are of the global environment and determine how changes in the boundary conditions for this natural environment are manifested.

  • Document the important forcing factors that are and will control climate change on societal timescales (season to century). Determine what the causes were of the rapid climate change events and rapid transitions in climate state.

Finding 1.2f: Within Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change, the following central scientific issues must be confronted:

  • Understand the major human causes of changes in the global environment and how they vary over time, across space, and between economic sectors and social groups.

  • Determine the human consequences of global environmental change on key life-support systems, such as water, health, energy, natural ecosys-



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