Welfare, the Family, and Reproductive Behavior

Report of a Meeting

John Haaga and Robert A. Moffitt, editors

Committee on Population

Board on Children, Youth, and Families

Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

National Research Council and Institute of Medicine

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, DC
1998



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Welfare, the Family, and Reproductive Behavior: Report of a Meeting Welfare, the Family, and Reproductive Behavior Report of a Meeting John Haaga and Robert A. Moffitt, editors Committee on Population Board on Children, Youth, and Families Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council and Institute of Medicine NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, DC 1998

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Welfare, the Family, and Reproductive Behavior: Report of a Meeting NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This project was supported by the Annie E. Casey Foundation and the Kellogg Fund of the Governing Board of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-06025-7 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418 Call 800-624-6242 or 202-334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area). This report is also available on line at http://www.nap.edu Printed in the United States of America Copyright 1998 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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Welfare, the Family, and Reproductive Behavior: Report of a Meeting COMMITTEE ON POPULATION RONALD D. LEE (Chair), Departments of Demography and Economics, University of California, Berkeley CAROLINE H. BLEDSOE, Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University JOHN BONGAARTS, The Population Council, New York JOHN B. CASTERLINE, The Population Council, New York LINDA G. MARTIN, RAND, Santa Monica, California JANE MENKEN, Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado, Boulder ROBERT A. MOFFITT, Department of Economics, Brown University MARK R. MONTGOMERY, Department of Economics, State University of New York, Stony Brook, and The Population Council, New York W. HENRY MOSLEY, Department of Population Dynamics, Johns Hopkins University JAMES P. SMITH, RAND, Santa Monica, California BETH J. SOLDO, Department of Demography, Georgetown University MARTA TIENDA, Population Research Center, University of Chicago AMY O. TSUI, Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill JOHN HAAGA, Director BARNEY COHEN, Senior Program Officer LATANYA JOHNSON, Senior Project Assistant JOEL ROSENQUIST, Senior Project Assistant (until May 1997)

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Welfare, the Family, and Reproductive Behavior: Report of a Meeting BOARD ON CHILDREN, YOUTH, AND FAMILIES JACK P. SHONKOFF (Chair), Heller Graduate School, Brandeis University DAVID V.B. BRITT, Children's Television Workshop, New York LARRY BUMPASS, Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin FERNANDO A. GUERRA, San Antonio Metropolitan Health District, Texas BERNARD GUYER, Department of Maternal and Child Health, Johns Hopkins University ALETHA C. HUSTON, Department of Human Ecology, University of Texas, Austin RENEE R. JENKINS, Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Howard University Hospital SARA McLANAHAN, Office of Population Research, Princeton University ROBERT MICHAEL, Harris Graduate School of Public Policy Studies, University of Chicago PAUL NEWACHECK, Institute of Health Policy Studies and Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco MARTHA PHILLIPS, The Concord Coalition, Washington, DC JULIUS B. RICHMOND, Department of Social Medicine, Harvard University Medical School TIMOTHY M. SANDOS, TCI Central, Inc., Denver DEBORAH STIPEK, Graduate School of Education, University of California, Los Angeles DIANA TAYLOR, Women's Health Program, Department of Family Health Care Nursing, University of California, San Francisco GAIL WILENSKY, Project Hope, Bethesda, Maryland EVAN CHARNEY, Council, Institute of Medicine (liaison member) RUTH T. GROSS, Board on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, Institute of Medicine (liaison member) ELEANOR E. MACCOBY, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education (liaison member) DEBORAH A. PHILLIPS, Director

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Welfare, the Family, and Reproductive Behavior: Report of a Meeting WORKSHOP PARTICIPANTS Christine Bachrach, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Rebecca Blank, Northwestern University Christopher Botsko, Child Trends Larry Bumpass, University of Wisconsin Lindsay Chase-Lansdale, University of Chicago Andrew Cherlin, Johns Hopkins University Thomas Corbett, University of Wisconsin Phoebe Cottingham, Rockefeller Foundation Janet Currie, University of California, Los Angeles William Darity, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill Jacqueline Darroch, Alan Guttmacher Institute William Dickens, Brookings Institution Gregory Duncan, Northwestern University Jennifer Eichberger, Brookings Institution Kristina Hanson, Kaiser Family Foundation Ronald Haskins, Subcommittee on Human Resources, House Ways and Means Committee, U.S. Congress Wade Horn, National Fatherhood Initiative Joseph Hotz, University of Chicago Kelleen Kaye, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Jacob Klerman, RAND, Santa Monica, California Elisa Koff, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Ronald Lee, University of California, Berkeley Daniel Lichter, Pennsylvania State University Rebecca Maynard, University of Pennsylvania Robert Moffitt, Johns Hopkins University Donald Oellerich, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services William O'Hare, Annie E. Casey Foundation June O'Neill, Congressional Budget Office Wendell Primus, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services William Raub, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Howard Rolston, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Anne Rosewater, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Isabel Sawhill, Urban Institute Susanne Stoiber, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Cathy Trost, Casey Journalism Center for Children and Families Alan Yaffe, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

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Welfare, the Family, and Reproductive Behavior: Report of a Meeting Acknowledgments This report summarizes presentations and discussions at the Workshop on Effects of Welfare on Reproductive Behavior and the Family, organized by the Committee on Population and the Board on Children, Youth, and Families of the National Research Council and the Institute of Medicine, in Washington, DC, May 2–3, 1996. Some of the papers prepared for the workshop will be published in revised form in an edited volume by the National Academy Press. The workshop was funded by the Annie E. Casey Foundation and by the Kellogg Fund of the Governing Board of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. Robert Moffitt of the Johns Hopkins University, a member of both the Committee on Population and the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, led the planning for the workshop and chaired it. John Haaga, director of the Committee on Population, led the staff work and served as rapporteur at the workshop. The committee and the board are very grateful to Michael Laracy and William O'Hare of the Annie E. Casey Foundation for their encouragement and intellectual input, and to Deborah Phillips, director of the Board on Children, Youth, and Families, for her suggestions. Anne Bridgman and Faith Mitchell gave an early draft of this summary a careful reading and made many useful comments. Joel Rosenquist of the Committee on Population staff provided superb assistance throughout, both in organizing the workshop and in handling successive changes to the manuscript. Trang Ta and LaTanya Johnson guided the manuscript through later stages. Most of all, of course, we are grateful to all the participants in the workshop

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Welfare, the Family, and Reproductive Behavior: Report of a Meeting whose ideas and comments are summarized here, and we hope that this publication helps ensure that their work contributes to the national debate on the continuing effort toward welfare reform. RONALD D. LEE, CHAIR COMMITTEE ON POPULATION

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Welfare, the Family, and Reproductive Behavior: Report of a Meeting Contents     Introduction   1     Trends in Marriage and Fertility   3     Trends in the Welfare System   6     Effects of Welfare on Marriage, Fertility, and Abortion   7     Effects of Welfare on the Family   13     Effects on Children,   13     The Missing Fathers,   15     Research and Evaluation Needs   16     Evaluations of State Reforms Under AFDC Waivers,   16     Does Research Matter?,   18     References   20 Appendix:   Workshop Agenda   23

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