plant A produced 500 MT of corn-soy blend (CSB) with high vitamin C and 500 MT of CSB with conventional levels of vitamin C; and plant B made 240 MT of conventionally fortified wheat-soy blend (WSB) followed by 240 MT of WSB with high vitamin C. Special markings were printed on the bags of these pilot production runs to facilitate finding the bags for sampling when they reached their distribution locations.
Countries chosen by the USAID's Office of Food for Peace and SUSTAIN for the pilot program were Haiti for WSB, a regular development type of food aid program and Tanzania for CSB, an emergency feeding situation. The primary criteria for site selection were that at least one country food aid program had to be chosen where scurvy had been reported in past camp feeding situations and one program where significant iron deficiency has been reported. Although there have been no reports of scurvy emanating from Tanzania to date, its location in the greater Horn of Africa where numerous cases of scurvy have been reported and the emergency feeding situation in the camps there indicated a very high risk situation.
Based on recommendations from the statistical subgroup of SUSTAIN's advisory panel, 48 samples of each run were collected. Sample collection was spread evenly over a two-to three-day run time. Ten of these samples were duplicated for use as blind analytical checks. A SUSTAIN representative, with the assistance of the USDA Feed Grain Inspection Service (FGIS) inspector and plant Quality Control (QC) staff, collected samples from each production run. Determination of whether a pilot production run was worthy of continued study was based on the following criteria: (1) the production was within control limits by normal standards of statistical quality control as applied by the U.S. food industry and (2) the variance in production was small enough to detect a 20 percent drop in ascorbic acid content at a 95 percent confidence level.
After initial results indicated uniformity problems in the fortification of CSB, USAID and the SUSTAIN Vitamin C Advisory Panel agreed that each of the seven plants that had been awarded CSB and WSB production contracts should be sampled to assess the extent of the problem. Five of the seven plants were sampled; 4 of the 5 CSB manufacturing plants and one of the two WSB manufacturing plants. The remaining two plants were not in production during the sampling period. Because the vitamin C content of the special CSB produced in plant A did not meet its criteria of acceptability for further study, SUSTAIN planned to postpone field testing of CSB in Tanzania indefinitely. However, in its preliminary report on the pilot program (IOM, 1996), the Institute of Medicine Committee on International Nutrition recommended to SUSTAIN that retrieval and analysis of samples of CSB delivered to Tanzania would be of value for two reasons: (1) to determine if vitamin C remained in the