References

ACC/SCN (United Nations Administrative Committee on Coordination/Subcommittee on Nutrition). 1996. Refugee nutrition information system. Update No. 2. November 11: 3–4.

ACC/SCN 1997. Update on the Nutrition Situation. SCN News 14 (July): 5–10.

Allen, L.H., and N. Ahluwalia. 1997. Improving iron status through diet. The Application of Knowledge Concerning Dietary Iron Bioavailability in Human Populations. Arlington, Va: OMNI.

Anderson, P., and P.T. Lukey. 1987. A biological role for ascorbate in the selective neutralization of extracellular phagocyte-derived oxidants. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 489:229–247.

Anderson, P., and A. Theron. 1979. Effects of ascorbate on leucoytes. Part III. In vitro and in vivo stimulation of abnormal neutrophil motility by ascorbate. S. Afr. Med. J. 56: 429–433.


Baker, E.M., R.E. Hodges, J. Hood, H.E. Sauberlich, S.C. March, and J.E. Canham. 1971. Metabolism of 14C-and 3H-labeled ascorbic acid in human scurvy. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 24:444–454.

Beaton, G.H. 1995. Fortification of Foods for Refugee Feeding. Final Report to the Canadian International Development Agency and Technical Background Report: Derivations and Analysis. Willowdale, Ontario: GHB Consulting.


Calloway, D.H., S.P. Murphy, G.H. Beaton, D. Lein. 1993. Estimated vitamin intakes of toddlers: predicted prevalence of inadequacy in village populations in Egypt, Kenya, and Mexico. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 58:376–384.

CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 1989. Nutritional Status of Somali refugees—Eastern Ethiopia, September 1988–May 1989. MMWR 38(26):455–456, 461–463.

CDC 1992. Famine-affected, refugee, and displaced populations: Recommendations for public health issue. MMWR 41(13):14–16.

Cook, J.D., and E.R. Monson. 1977. Vitamin C, the common cold, and iron absorption. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 30:235–241



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--> References ACC/SCN (United Nations Administrative Committee on Coordination/Subcommittee on Nutrition). 1996. Refugee nutrition information system. Update No. 2. November 11: 3–4. ACC/SCN 1997. Update on the Nutrition Situation. SCN News 14 (July): 5–10. Allen, L.H., and N. Ahluwalia. 1997. Improving iron status through diet. The Application of Knowledge Concerning Dietary Iron Bioavailability in Human Populations. Arlington, Va: OMNI. Anderson, P., and P.T. Lukey. 1987. A biological role for ascorbate in the selective neutralization of extracellular phagocyte-derived oxidants. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 489:229–247. Anderson, P., and A. Theron. 1979. Effects of ascorbate on leucoytes. Part III. In vitro and in vivo stimulation of abnormal neutrophil motility by ascorbate. S. Afr. Med. J. 56: 429–433. Baker, E.M., R.E. Hodges, J. Hood, H.E. Sauberlich, S.C. March, and J.E. Canham. 1971. Metabolism of 14C-and 3H-labeled ascorbic acid in human scurvy. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 24:444–454. Beaton, G.H. 1995. Fortification of Foods for Refugee Feeding. Final Report to the Canadian International Development Agency and Technical Background Report: Derivations and Analysis. Willowdale, Ontario: GHB Consulting. Calloway, D.H., S.P. Murphy, G.H. Beaton, D. Lein. 1993. Estimated vitamin intakes of toddlers: predicted prevalence of inadequacy in village populations in Egypt, Kenya, and Mexico. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 58:376–384. CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 1989. Nutritional Status of Somali refugees—Eastern Ethiopia, September 1988–May 1989. MMWR 38(26):455–456, 461–463. CDC 1992. Famine-affected, refugee, and displaced populations: Recommendations for public health issue. MMWR 41(13):14–16. Cook, J.D., and E.R. Monson. 1977. Vitamin C, the common cold, and iron absorption. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 30:235–241

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--> Cook, J.D., S.S.Watson, K.M. Simpson, D.A. Lipschitz, and B.S. Skikne. 1984. The effect of high ascorbic acid supplementation on body iron stores. Blood 64:712–726. Dawson, W., and G.B. West. 1965. The influence of ascorbic acid on histamine metabolism in guinea pig. Br. J. Pharmacol. 24:725–734. Desenclos, J.C. 1987. Relief food and vitamin C deficiency, Lancet (letter) Aug. 22:462–463. Desenclos, J.C., A.M. Beiry, R. Podt, B. Farah, C. Segala, and A.M. Nabil. 1989. Epidemiological patterns of scurvy in Ethiopian refugees. Bull. WHO 67(3):309–316. Erdman, J.W., Jr., and B.P. Klein. 1982. Harvesting, processing, and cooking influences on vitamin C in foods. In Ascorbic Acid: Chemistry, Metabolism, and Uses. P.A. Seib and B.M. Tolbert (eds.) Adv. in Chem. Ser. 200. Washington, D.C.:American Chemical Society. Hallberg, L. 1981. The effect of vitamin C on the bioavailability of iron in food. (p. 49–61). In Vitamin C: Ascorbic Acid. J.N. Counsell and D.H. Hornig (eds). Essex, England: Applied Science Publications. Henry, C.J.K., and J. Seaman. 1992. The micronutrient fortification of refugee rations to prevent nutritional deficiencies in refugee diets. J. Refugee Studies 5(3/4):359. Hodges, R.E., E.M. Baker, J. Hood, H.E. Sauberlich, and S.C. March. 1969. Experimental scurvy in man. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 22:535–548. Hodges, R.E., J. Hood, J.E. Canham, H.E. Sauberlich, and E.M. Baker. 1971. Clinical manifestations of ascorbic acid deficiency in man. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 24:432–443. Hornig, D.H. 1975. Metabolism of ascorbic acid. World Rev. Nutr. Diet. 23:225–258. Hornig, D.H. and U. Moser. 1981. The safety of high vitamin C intakes in man. (p. 225–248). In Vitamin C: Ascorbic Acid. J.N. Counsell and D. Hornig (eds.) Essex, England. Applied Science Publications. IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1996. Vitamin C in Food Aid Commodities: Initial Review of a Pilot Program. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Irwin, M.I., and B.K. Hutchens. 1976. A conspectus of research on vitamin C requirements of man. J. Nutr. 106:823–879. Leibovitz, B., and B.V. Siegel. 1978. Ascorbic acid, neutrophil function, and the immune response. Int. J. Vitamin Nutr. Res. 48:159–164. Levenson, S.M., G. Manner, and E. Seifter. 1971. Aspects of the adverse effects of dysnutrition on wound healing. pp. 132–156. In Progress in Human Nutrition, Vol. I. S. Margen (ed.). Westport, Conn.: AVI Publishing. Magan, A.M., M. Warsame, A. Oli-Salad and M.J. Toole. 1983. Outbreak of scurvy in Somali refugee camps. Disaster 7(2):94–97. Mason, J., S. Gillespie, G. Clugston, and P. Greeves. 1992. Misconceptions on nutrition of refugees. Lancet (letter) 340:1354. Mason, J., J. Wallace, J. Katona-Apte, and D. Alnwick. 1996. Nutrition and food aid: Methodologies. World Disasters Report. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. NRC (National Research Council). 1974. Recommended Dietary Allowances , eighth edition. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC (National Research Council). 1989. Recommended Dietary Allowances , tenth editon. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

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--> OMNI (Opportunities for Micronutrient Interventions). 1994. Micronutient Fortification and Enrichment of P.L. 480 Title II Commodities: Recommendations for Improvement. A Technical Review Paper. Arlington, Va.: OMNI. Ranum, P., and F. Chomé (eds.). 1996. The Vitamin C Pilot Program: Monitoring, Evaluation, and Quality Control Component. Washington, D.C.: SUSTAIN. Ranum, P. and F. Chomé (eds). 1997. Results Report on the Vitamin C Pilot Program. Washington, D.C.: SUSTAIN. Reed, B.A. and J-P. Habicht. 1997. Sales of food aid as sign of distress, not excess. Lancet (in press). Seaman, J., and J.P.W. Rivers. 1989. Scurvy and anemia in refugees. Lancet (letter) (May 27):1204. Toole, M.J. 1992. Micronutrient deficiencies in refugees. Lancet (339):1214–1216. Toole, M.J. 1994. Preventing micronutrient deficiency disease. Background document 2. ACC/SCN Workshop on Improvement of the Nutrition of Refugees and Displaced People in Africa. Machakos, Kenya. UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner on Refugees) 1989. Options to alleviate nutritional deficiency diseases in refugees. Discussion Paper. UNHCR. Technical Support Service. USAID (United States Agency for International Development.). 1990. Technical Review of Vitamin C and Iron Levels in P.L. 480 Title II Commodities, Arlington, Va. USAID. 1996. FY 1996 Title II Emergency Program CSB/WSB Shipments. Arlington, Va. USAID. 1997a. Metric Tonnage and Dollar Values (in $000's): Wheat Soy Blend. P.L. 480 Title II FY1996 Single Commodity Report. USAID. 1997b. Metric Tonnage and Dollar Values (in S000's): Corn Soya Blend. P.L. 480 Title II FY 1996 Single Commodity Report. USDA (United States Department of Agriculture). 1997. Nutrient Data Base for Standard Reference Release 11–1. [http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp]. WHO (World Health Organization). 1993. Guidelines on Micronutrient Supplementation pp. 2–3, 8–12. Regional Office for Europe. Zagreb: Croatia. Woodruff, C.W. 1975. Ascorbic acid—Scurvy. Prog. Food Nutr Sci. 1:493–506.

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