Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.
OCR for page R1
Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children’s Reading Success Starting Out Right A Guide to Promoting Children’s Reading Success
OCR for page R2
Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children’s Reading Success NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. The study was supported by Contract/Grant No. H023S50001 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Department of Education. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. Committee on the Prevention of Reading Difficulties in Young Children CATHERINE SNOW (Chair), Graduate School of Education, Harvard University; MARILYN JAGER ADAMS, Bolt, Beranek, and Newman, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts; BARBARA T. BOWMAN, Erikson Institute, Chicago, Illinois; BARBARA FOORMAN, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas, and Houston Medical School; DOROTHY FOWLER, Fairfax County Public Schools, Annandale, Virginia; CLAUDE N. GOLDENBERG, Department of Teacher Education, California State University, Long Beach; EDWARD J. KAME’ENUI*, College of Education, University of Oregon, Eugene; WILLIAM LABOV, Department of Linguistics and Psychology, University of Pennsylvania; RICHARD K. OLSON, Department of Psychology, University of Colorado, Boulder; ANNEMARIE SULLIVAN PALINCSAR, School of Education, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; CHARLES A. PERFETTI, Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh; HOLLIS S. SCARBOROUGH, Brooklyn College, City University of New York, and Haskins Laboratories, New Haven, Connecticut; SALLY SHAYWITZ, Department of Pediatrics, Yale University; KEITH STANOVICH, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto; DOROTHY STRICKLAND, Graduate School of Education, Rutgers University; SAM STRINGFIELD, Center for the Social Organization of Schools, Johns Hopkins University; ELIZABETH SULZBY, School of Education, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; M. SUSAN BURNS, Study Director; PEG GRIFFIN, Research Associate; SHARON VANDIVERE, Project Assistant * Did not sign off on this book Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Starting out right : a guide to promoting children's reading success / M. Susan Burns, Peg Griffin, and Catherine E. Snow, editors ; Committee on the Prevention of Reading Difficulties in Young Children, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-309-06410-4 (pbk.) 1. Reading (Early childhood)—United States. 2. Reading disability—United States. I. Burns, M. Susan (Marie Susan). II. Griffin, Peg. III. Snow, Catherine E. IV. Committee on the Prevention of Reading Difficulties in Young Children. LB1139.5.R43 S83 1998 372.1—ddc21 98-25492 Additional copies of this report are available from National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055. Call (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area). This report is also available online at http://www.nap.edu Printed in the United States of America Copyright 1999 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Book design by Francesca Moghari (National Academy Press).
OCR for page R3
Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children’s Reading Success Starting Out Right A Guide to Promoting Children’s Reading Success M. Susan Burns, Peg Griffin, and Catherine E. Snow, Editors Committee on the Prevention of Reading Difficulties in Young Children Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, DC 1999
OCR for page R4
Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children’s Reading Success Contents Foreword vi Introduction 1 Guide to This Book 2 Promoting Children’s Reading Success 5 Circumstances That Promote Reading 8 Growing Up to Read Birth Through Age Four 15 Key Aspects of Language and Literacy, Activities for Very Young Children 19 ★Extended Vocabulary and Language Development ★Phonological Awareness ★Speech Discrimination ★Knowledge of Narrative ★Book and Print Awareness ★Functions of Print ★Print Concepts ★Letter and Early Word Recognition ★Comprehension ★Literacy as a Source of Enjoyment★ Literacy—from Parent to Child 42 Talking to a Baby: Day Care Environments 43 High-Quality Preschool 44 Language and Literacy Activities in Preschool 46 ★Phonological Awareness ★Sociodramatic Play ★Listening ★Oral Language ★Shared Reading ★Exposure to Books ★Letter-Naming ★Writing ★Computer-Based Literacy★ Accomplishments of the Very Young Child 58 Early Childhood Educators 58 Becoming Real Readers Kindergarten Through Grade Three 61 Individual Children 61 The Kindergarten Challenge 65 What Must Be Accomplished—Goals of Kindergarten 65 Activities and Practices for Kindergartners 66 ★Book and Print Awareness ★Phonological Awareness ★Language, Comprehension, and Response to Text ★Letter Recognition, Decoding, and Word Recognition ★Spelling and Writing Accomplishments of the Kindergarten Student 84
OCR for page R5
Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children’s Reading Success First Grade: An Important Year 86 Features of Success 88 Activities and Practices for First Grade Classrooms 90 ★Continuing Phonemic Awareness, Letter Knowledge, and Book and Print Awareness ★Decoding, Word Recognition, and Oral Reading ★Language, Comprehension, and Response to Text ★Spelling and Writing★ Accomplishments of the First Grade Student 106 Directions for Second and Third Grades 108 ★Strategies for Comprehension and Fluency ★Words and Knowledge ★Comprehension Techniques★ What Happens in Second Grade 113 ★Decoding, Word Recognition, and Oral Reading ★Language, Comprehension, and Response to Text ★Spelling and Writing★ What Happens in Third Grade 115 ★Decoding, Word Recognition, and Oral Reading ★Language, Comprehension, and Response to Text ★Spelling and Writing★ Accomplishments of the Second and Third Grade Student 117 Computers in Classrooms and at Home 120 Excellence in Primary Grade Teaching—A Career-Long Process 122 Preventing Reading Difficulties 127 Who Are the Children Who Have Reading Difficulties 130 ★Children Who Attend a Chronically Low-Achieving School ★Children with Low English Proficiency ★Children Unfamiliar with Standard English Dialect ★Children Living in Communities in Poverty★ What Can We Do Before Children Reach School? 134 ★Health Care Professionals and Reading ★Screening by Early Childhood Professionals ★Children Whose Parents Have a History of Reading Difficulty★ Developmental Interventions for the Youngest Children 137 ★Reaching Out to Children’s Homes★ Summary 139 Help in the Early Grades 140 The Need for Reading Specialists 140 The Community Is Needed 140 Volunteer Tutoring 142 Conclusion 145 Glossary 147 For More Information 153 Internet Resources 165 Acknowledgments 169 Credits 171 Index 173
OCR for page R6
Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children’s Reading Success Foreword Madeline soon ate and drank. On her bed there was a crank, and a crack on the ceiling had the habit of sometimes looking like a rabbit.* How easy it is for us adults to forget the magic of our own childhood—the freshness of each discovery, the joy at awakening to each new day. And yet the human spirit thrives on the stimulation that comes from discovering new things, and each of us is refreshed by an active imagination that truly exercises the mind. We began this brief foreword with a quotation from a well-known children’s book to help transport the reader, for just one fleeting moment, into the mind of a young child. As he or she reads or is being read to, the series of vivid images that accompanies a good story will carry a child into unfamiliar worlds—leading the child to make new mental connections that will enrich the experience of many subsequent actual events. Yet today we are seeing an increasing number of students who are not proficient readers, as well as adults who cannot read well, even though they have been to school. In fact, surveys tell us that 4 in 10 children experience literacy problems. It is for this reason that the National Research Council of the National Academies of Sciences and Engineering, with which we are both involved, set out to identify the specific skills and experiences that children need to become fluent readers. A select committee composed of educators, linguists, pediatricians, and psychologists has carefully reviewed the relevant scientific literature about how children
OCR for page R7
Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children’s Reading Success become successful readers, and their findings are reflected in this book, which is based on the groundbreaking study Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children. In our society, reading is essential for creating a healthy mind and for building the capacity needed for a lifetime of learning. It is therefore our hope that this book—and others like it—will be prescribed by pediatricians, as part of their responsibility to help parents raise a healthy child. Many parents who read this book may be surprised to learn of research suggesting that infants only a few months old should be read to, as part of the preparation they will need much later for reading—or that reciting nursery rhymes is an important part of reading preparation. As parents and grandparents, we have found that reading out loud with our younger family members creates a strong bond between generations, providing us with many shared experiences to enjoy. We remember reading to our children even after they had become excellent readers, allowing us to explore literature together. In retrospect, we now realize that the obvious enjoyment of these sessions helped our children to view reading as a very pleasurable experience. Our friend Dr. Vartan Gregorian, former president of the New York City Public Library, has said: “Any book creates for the reader a place elsewhere. A person reading is a person suspended between the immediate and the timeless. This suspension serves a purpose that has little to do with escaping from the real world, the sin avid readers are most commonly accused of. Reading provides renewal. What is renewed is the imagination.” No person should be deprived of one of life’s real pleasures, the joy of reading. Bruce and Betty Alberts Bruce and Betty Alberts have four children, including a foster child who joined the family at age 13. They have 3 grandchildren ages 2 to 7, plus one more on the way. They look forward with great eagerness to visits with grandchildren, which provide them with an excuse to enjoy reading children’s books once again. In addition to his family responsibilities, Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. * From Bemelmans, L. (1939) Madeline. New York: The Viking Press.
OCR for page R8
Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children’s Reading Success This book is based on a major report of the National Research Council, entitled Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children, prepared by the Committee on the Prevention of Reading Difficulties in Young Children. Both books are available on the Internet at www.nap.edu.