reading independently every day, outside school. In their speech and writing, they are showing an expanding repertoire of language and vocabulary.

Second graders should also be busily learning how to learn from text. They are interpreting information from diagrams, charts, and graphs, and they recall facts and details. They are participating in creative responses to texts, such as dramatizations, oral presentations, and fantasy play. They are comparing and contrasting characters and events across stories and offer answers to how, why, and what-if questions in nonfiction texts. They are explaining and describing new concepts and information in their own words. They can identify parts of speech such as nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs.

Spelling and Writing

In second grade, children should be correctly spelling most previously studied words and spelling patterns. When spelling a new word, they are representing all the sounds, even if they are still spelling some of those sounds inconsistently. They are rapidly incorporating the spelling patterns of the words they have studied into new words they attempt. Increasingly, they are becoming writers, using formal language patterns, such as quotes and proper verb forms, in their writing products. They are making reasonable judgments about what to include when they write, and they are now able to productively discuss how to revise, edit, and refine a piece of writing. With some organizational help, they are writing informative, well-structured reports. In the process, they are attending to spelling, mechanics, and presentation for final products, which may include a wide variety of formats, such as short stories, research report, and letters. When they have it available, students at this age are using computer technology for composition and presentations.

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