Dialect

A regional or social variety of a language distinguished by pronunciation, grammar, or vocabulary, especially a variety of speech differing from the standard literary language or speech pattern of the culture in which it exists.


Early Language Impairment

A failure to thrive in the development of one’s native language; a significant and prolonged deviation from age related language milestones; a reduced capacity in expressive or receptive language or both. “Specific language impairment” is the preferred term if development thrives in cognitive, affective, and social spheres and is impaired only for language.

Emergent Literacy

A range of activities and behaviors related to written language including those undertaken by very young children who depend on the cooperation of others and/or on creative play to deal with the material; reading and writing related activities and behaviors that change over time culminating in conventional literacy during middle childhood.

Emergent Reading

Reading related activities and behaviors, especially those prior to a child’s achieving the capacity to read fluently and conventionally; This includes (a) the attentive presence of a child while another reads for the child’s benefit, (b) the execution of acts with materials related to reading, e.g., page turning, letter naming, and (c) the pretense of processing and/or comprehending written language.

Emergent Writing

Writing related activities and behaviors, especially those prior to a child’s achieving the capacity to write fluently and conventionally; includes (a) the attentive presence of a child while another writes according to the child’s intentions, (b) the execution of acts with materials related to writing, e.g., scribbling letter-like forms, inventive spelling, and (c) the pretense of producing text to be read.

Expressive Language Capacity

Accuracy, fluency, and appropriateness in producing language.


Fluency

Achieving speed and accuracy in recognizing words and comprehending connected text, and coordinating the two.

Frustration Level/Reading

Level at which a child’s reading skills break down: fluency disappears, errors in word recognition are numerous, comprehension is faulty, recall is sketchy, and signs of emotional tension and discomfort become evident.



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