An aspect of reading that involves deriving a pronunciation for a printed sequence of letters based on knowledge of spelling-sound correspondences.
In reading, identifying as known words those that have been decoded or processed as whole words and associating the known words with their meaning and use in language being read.
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Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children's Reading Success . Washington, DC: The National Academies Press,
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As of 2013, the National Science Education Standards have been replaced by the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), available as a print book, free PDF download, and online with our OpenBook platform.
The NGSS offer a detailed description of the key scientific ideas and practices that all students should learn by the time they graduate from high school. The standards are based largely on the 2011 National Research Council report A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas.