language skills, general, 1, 2, 6, 15-17, 18, 44, 138

letter identification, 34, 53, 54-55, 57, 59

libraries, 36, 37, 38, 53

listening comprehension, 50, 52

literacy, general, 1, 7, 8, 15-17, 18, 42, 44, 45, 120, 137, 139, 148

computer-based instruction, 56-57

day care, 43, 53

play activities, 37

teacher knowledge of, 123

motivation, 7, 8, 10, 13, 37, 42, 44, 60

motor skills, 8, 18, 60, 74, 138

oral reading, 20, 52

parents, 1, 2, 4, 6, 10, 17, 18-20, 27, 30, 42

phonemic awareness, 46-47, 57

phonological awareness, 20-22, 46-48, 50, 55

phonology, 23, 57

pictures, 10, 15, 17, 23, 25, 28, 36, 37, 59, 88

list of 100 great picture books, 38-41

pretend reading, 17

print awareness, 18, 27-28, 29, 30, 32-33, 52, 55, 59

questions posed to children, 20, 21, 32, 35, 36, 37, 44, 55

reading problems, 24, 42, 128, 137, 138-139

rhymes and songs, 17, 19, 20-22, 24, 42, 43, 46, 47-48, 57, 59, 135

spelling, 55-56

spoken words, 18, 19, 35, 50, 56

storybooks, 15, 19, 26, 44, 45, 51, 52, 57

talking with adults, 17, 19-20, 23, 28, 30, 36, 50-52

teachers, 44, 45, 50-51, 52, 58, 60

teaching activities, 2, 9, 11, 19, 21, 23-25, 26, 29, 32-35, 37, 47-56, 58

talking with children, 17, 19-20, 23, 27, 28, 30, 36, 50-51

vocabulary, 6, 8, 19-20, 35, 50-51, 59, 60

word recognition, 17, 19, 34, 44, 57, 59, 60

writing, 49, 51, 55-56

emergent writing, 15, 17, 30, 32, 37, 45, 55-56, 59, 60

see Day care environments;

Emergent reading

Book reading, 8, 9

access to books, 53, 62, 63, 65, 74, 76, 127, 134, 135, 143

birth through age four, 8-9, 17, 36, 37, 38, 53

see also Libraries and librarians

big books, 52, 129, 147

birth through age four, 8-9, 17, 19, 20, 22, 27-28, 37, 38, 52-53, 59

pretend reading, 17, 28, 37

curriculum, optimal, 129

day care settings, 53

first grade, 62, 63, 90-94

kindergarten, 65, 66, 74, 85

sound-focused, 22

summer reading lists, 10

see also Storybooks

C

Capitalization, letters, 80, 82, 85, 92, 94-95, 107

CD-ROMs, 37, 56, 120

Child care settings, see Day care environments

Choral reading, see Group reading

Classroom design

first grade, 62-63

kindergarten, 72

preschool, 45

Classroom support, 140

Class size

first grade, 87

poor children, 62

see also Student-teacher ratios

Cognitive deficits, 128, 136, 137, 138

intelligence quotient, 136, 138

special education, 112, 127, 131, 138, 140

Cognitive skills

birth through age four, 18, 60

problem-solving activities, 5, 32

second and third grades, 111

space and directionality, 18, 60

teacher education, 123

Comprehension, see Reading comprehension

Computer-assisted instruction, 120-121

alphabetic principle, 57, 121

birth through age four, 47, 49, 56-57

CD-ROMs, 37, 56, 120

Internet resources, 165-167

K-3, 63

phonemic awareness, 47

second grade, 114

World Wide Web, resources available, 165-167

Conceptual knowledge, 10, 117, 129, 134

birth through age four, 10, 36, 44, 60

first grade, 90, 98-100, 107

kindergarten, 65, 71, 85

labeling and labeling games, 19, 29, 37, 49, 59, 72, 86

literacy, 9, 65, 123-124

pedagogical, 123-124

second and third grades, 111, 118, 119

see also Questions;

Reading for meaning;

Summarizing

Conversation, adults talking with children, 36, 134

birth through age four, 17, 19-20, 23, 28, 30, 36, 50-52

kindergarten, 70-72

parents, 17, 19-20, 27, 50-51, 52, 89, 135

see also Questions

Cost factors

computer instruction, 120

funding, 138, 140-141

remedial programs, 130

teacher training, 122

CROWD questions, 52

Cultural factors, 62



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