see also Dialects;

English as a second language;

Minority groups

Curricular design, general, 2

birth through age four, 45, 46

comprehensive, 129

defined, 147

first grade, 87, 94

identifying/preventing problems, 131

K-3 teachers, 61, 63, 90

optimal, 129-130

primary education, 10, 61

second and third grades, 108, 110-111

spelling, 102

teacher certification, 124

see also Instructional materials;

Teaching activities

Curriculum casualties, 130, 147

D

Day care environments, 1, 18, 32, 43, 44, 53-54, 136

books, access to, 53

Deafness, see Hearing impairments

Decoding

computer instruction, 120

curriculum, optimal, 129

defined, 147, 151

first grade, 94-96, 107

kindergarten, 78-81

second and third grades, 108, 110, 113, 115, 118

Developmental factors, see Birth through age four;

Cognitive deficits

Diagnostics, see Screening and identification

Dialects, 124, 133, 148

Dialogic reading, see Paired reading

Dictation activities, 51, 66, 85, 129

Dictionaries, letters of the alphabet

first grade, 92

kindergarten, 83, 84

Directionality, concept of, 18, 60

Disabilities

cognitive deficits, 128, 136, 137, 138

special education, 112, 127, 131, 138, 140

early language impairments, 24, 42, 44, 136, 137, 148

hearing impairments, 24, 136, 137

learning disabilities, 5, 112, 128, 136, 140

speech impairments, 24

Dramatic play, 26-27, 49, 72-73, 85, 101, 114, 115, 129

Dr. Seuss, 22, 80

Dyadic reading, see Paired reading

E

Early childhood development, see Birth through age four;

Day care environments;

Emergent reading;

Emergent writing

Early language impairments, 24, 42, 44, 136, 137

defined, 148

letter identification, 15, 42, 141

Economic factors, see Cost factors;

Funding;

Poverty

Emergent reading, 1, 28, 37, 85

defined, 148

pretend reading, 17, 28, 37, 59

teacher education on, 60

videotaped, 51

Emergent writing

birth through age four, 15, 17, 30, 32, 37, 45, 55-56, 59, 60

defined, 148

first grade, 88, 89, 102-106, 107

invented spelling, 10, 45, 55-56, 85, 88, 102, 105, 107

kindergarten, 10, 65, 81-84, 85

teacher education on, 60

Employment, 5

English as a second language, 5, 130-132

bilingual education, 124, 130, 131, 132

Hispanics, 130, 131

teacher certification, 124

Ethnic groups, see Minority groups

Evaluation

continuous classroom assessment, 10, 123

peer, 103

teachers, 122-123

see also Screening and identification;

Standards

Explicit instruction, general, 96, 111, 112, 129

Expressive language capacity

defined, 148

delayed development, 136

see also Spoken words

F

Families

birth through age four, 18, 27, 139

Internet resources, 166

literacy programs, 127, 143

see also Adults;

Parents

First grade, 2, 4, 10, 86-107

alphabetic principle, 91, 92-94, 102

book reading, 62, 63, 90-94

conceptual knowledge, 90, 98-100, 107

decoding, 94-96, 107

goals, 10, 88, 90, 96, 102, 107

group/choral reading, 88, 97

group instruction, other, 63, 64, 87, 96

independent reading, 10, 88

instructional materials, 92, 93, 94, 95

language skills, general, 96-102, 106

letter identification, 63, 88, 90-96, 102, 106, 107

literacy, general, 106, 107

oral reading, 10, 63, 88, 94-96, 97, 107

parents, 2, 4, 87, 97

phonemic awareness, 10, 88, 90-94, 102, 107



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