Birth to Three-Year-Old Accomplishments

  • Recognizes specific books by cover.

  • Pretends to read books.

  • Understands that books are handled in particular ways.

  • Enters into a book-sharing routine with primary caregivers.

  • Vocalization play in crib gives way to enjoyment of rhyming language, nonsense word play, etc.

  • Labels objects in books.

  • Comments on characters in books.

  • Looks at picture in book and realizes it is a symbol for real object.

  • Listens to stories.

  • Requests/commands adult to read or write.

  • May begin attending to specific print, such as letters in names.

  • Uses increasingly purposeful scribbling.

  • Occasionally seems to distinguish between drawing and writing.

  • Produces some letter-like forms and scribbles with some features of English writing.

Three- to Four-Year-Old Accomplishments

  • Knows that alphabet letters are a special category of visual graphics that can be individually named.

  • Recognizes print in the local environment.

  • Knows that it is the print that is read in stories.

  • Understands that different text forms are used for different functions of print (e.g., a list for groceries is different than the list on a menu).

  • Pays attention to separable and repeating sounds in language (e.g., in Peter, Peter, Pumpkin Eater: Peter Eater).

  • Uses new vocabulary and grammatical constructions in own speech.

  • Understands and follows oral directions.

  • Is sensitive to some sequences of events in stories.

  • Shows an interest in books and reading.

  • When being read a story, connects information and events to real-life experiences.

  • Questions and comments demonstrate understanding of literal meaning of story being told.

  • Displays reading and writing attempts, calling attention to self: “Look at my story.”

  • Can identify about 10 alphabet letters, especially those from own name.

  • Writes (scribbles) message as part of playful activity.

  • May begin to attend to beginning or rhyming sounds in salient words.

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