Children who learn to read successfully master the three core elements. They are able to Identify Printed Words using sound spelling connections and have a sight word repertoire. They are able to use previous knowledge, vocabulary, and comprehension strategies to read for Meaning. They read with Fluency, that is, they can identify words swiftly so that what is read is understood and reading itself is enjoyable. Children start to accumulate the skills needed for reading early in life—building a Preschool Language and Literacy Foundation—which includes opportunities for children to develop oral language skills, including phonological awareness, motivation to read, appreciation for literate forms, print awareness, and letter knowledge.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement