Kindergarten Accomplishments

  • Knows the parts of a book and their functions.

  • Begins to track print when listening to a familiar text being read or when rereading own writing.

  • “Reads” familiar texts emergently, i.e., not necessarily verbatim from the print alone.

  • Recognizes and can name all uppercase and lowercase letters.

  • Understands that the sequence of letters in a written word represents the sequence of sounds (phonemes) in a spoken word (alphabetic principle).

  • Learns many, though not all, one-to-one letter-sound correspondences.

  • Recognizes some words by sight, including a few very common ones ( “the,”“I,” “my,”“you,”“is,”“are”).

  • Uses new vocabulary and grammatical constructions in own speech.

  • Makes appropriate switches from oral to written language styles.

  • Notices when simple sentences fail to make sense.

  • Connects information and events in texts to life and life experiences to text.

  • Retells, reenacts, or dramatizes stories or parts of stories.

  • Listens attentively to books the teacher reads to class.

  • Can name some book titles and authors.

  • Demonstrates familiarity with a number of types or genres of text (e.g., storybooks, expository texts, poems, newspapers, and everyday print such as signs, notices, labels).

  • Correctly answers questions about stories read aloud.

  • Makes predictions based on illustrations or portions of stories.

  • Demonstrates understanding that spoken words consist of sequences of phonemes.

  • Given spoken sets like “dan, dan, den,” can identify the first two as the same and the third as different.

  • Given spoken sets like “dak, pat, zen,” can identify the first two as sharing one same sound.

  • Given spoken segments, can merge them into a meaningful target word.

  • Given a spoken word, can produce another word that rhymes with it.

  • Independently writes many uppercase and lowercase letters.

  • Uses phonemic awareness and letter knowledge to spell independently (invented or creative spelling).

  • Writes (unconventionally) to express own meaning.

  • Builds a repertoire of some conventionally spelled words.

  • Shows awareness of distinction between “kid writing” and conventional orthography.

  • Writes own name (first and last) and the first names of some friends or classmates.

  • Can write most letters and some words when they are dictated.

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement