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mation, AIs for these age groups have been extrapolated from adult values by using the method described in Chapter 2.

Choline AI Summary, Ages 1 through 18 Years

AI for Children

1–3 years

200 mg/day of choline

4–8 years

250 mg/day of choline

AI for Boys

9–13 years

375 mg/day of choline

14–18 years

550 mg/day of choline

AI for Girls

9–13 years

375 mg/day of choline

14–18 years

400 mg/day of choline

Adults Ages 19 Years and Older

Method Used to Set the AI

An intake level of 500 mg/day (4.8 mmol/day; approximately 7 mg/kg/day [0.7mmol/kg/day]) of choline base is the dose that prevented alanine aminotransferase abnormalities in healthy men (Zeisel et al., 1991). This estimate for an AI is uncertain because it is based on a single published study; it may need revision when other data become available. This estimate fits within the bracketing estimates derived from patients on total parenteral nutrition for whom approximately 2 mg/kg/day of choline moiety did not prevent a deficiency syndrome (Sheard et al., 1986) and 31 mg/kg/day of choline moiety restored normal choline status (Buchman et al., 1992, 1993). The amount estimated as adequate for men should be sufficient to prevent an increase in alanine aminotransferase but it resulted in a small decrease in plasma choline in the one study in which it was evaluated, which suggests that dietary intake normally might be slightly higher. Thus the AI is set at approximately 7 mg/ kg/day or, for the reference man weighing 76 kg, at 550 mg after rounding.

To arrive at an estimate for AI for women, it is assumed that data from men can be used even though women may use choline more efficiently (see “Gender”). No experimental attempts to make healthy women choline deficient have been reported. However, women on total parenteral nutrition were just as likely as were men to develop low plasma choline concentrations and fatty liver (Buchman et al., 1995).



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