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about the infant’s ability to handle excess amounts. The only source of intake for infants should be from food or formula to prevent high levels of intake. There are no data to suggest that during pregnancy or lactation increased susceptibility to developing cholinergic effects or fishy body odor from excess choline intake would occur. Therefore, the UL of 3.5 g/day is also set for pregnant and lactating women. The UL of 3.5 g/day for adults was adjusted for children and adolescents on the basis of relative body weight as described in Chapter 3, with the use of reference weights from Chapter 1, Table 1-2. Values have been rounded down.

Choline UL Summary, Other Life Stage Groups

UL For Infants

0–12 months

Not possible to establish; source of intake should be formula and food only

UL for Children

1–3 years

1 g/day of choline

4–8 years

1 g/day of choline

9–13 years

2 g/day of choline

UL for Adolescents

14–18 years

3 g/day of choline

UL for Pregnancy

14–18 years

3 g/day of choline

19 years and older

3.5 g/day of choline

UL for Lactation

14–18 years

3 g/day of choline

19 years and older

3.5 g/day of choline

Special Considerations

Individuals with the following conditions may be at risk of adverse effects with choline intakes at the UL: trimethylaminuria, renal disease, liver disease, depression, and Parkinson’s disease.

Intake Assessment

National surveys do not provide data on the dietary intake of choline. The UL applies to the weight of the choline moiety in the compound; for example, choline chloride contains more choline by weight than does choline bitartrate. Dietary supplements containing choline are available; however, reliable estimates of the



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