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The following mechanisms were used: National Library of Medicine’s PubMed (Medline from 1966–present); WinSPIRS, Version 1.0 (Medline from 1983–May 1997); and HealthWorld/Infotrieve (Medline and Toxline from 1966–present). The choice of which mechanism to use for a particular search involved consideration of ease of access to the database, type and extent of data on adverse effects accessed by each, and presentation of the search information.

Search Terms Used

Searches consistently allowed the inclusion of animal studies unless the number of articles retrieved was large, as was the case for folic acid. Specific searches of folate and animals are specified in the listing below. Final searches were conducted July through October 1997.

  • thiamin AND [toxicity OR high dose OR dermatitis OR pruritus OR sudden infant death syndrome]

  • riboflavin AND [toxicity OR safety OR high dose OR excess OR phototoxicity OR photosensitization OR mutagenicity OR DNA damage]

  • niacin AND [toxicity OR gastrointestinal OR gout OR flushing OR hepatotoxicity]

  • pyridoxine AND [toxicity OR peripheral neuropathy OR kidney stones OR dermatosis OR photosensitivity]

  • [folic acid OR folate] AND [toxicity OR zinc OR neurotoxicity OR nephropathy] (restricted to human studies)

  • [folic acid OR folate] AND [kidney AND ((humans OR toxicity)) OR ((adverse effects AND animals)) OR fruit bats OR precipitation of neuropathy]

  • [vitamin B12 OR cyanocobalamin OR cobalamin] AND [toxicity OR excess OR high dose]

  • pantothenic acid AND [toxicity OR excess OR high dose]

  • biotin AND [toxicity OR high dose]

  • choline AND [toxicity OR adverse effects OR fishy odor OR hypotension OR hepatitis OR hepatotox*]



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