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B

Beriberi, 58, 59–60, 63, 65

Betaine, 392, 393, 398, 399, 413

Bioavailability of nutrients

biotin, 375–376, 378

choline, 400, 402, 413

correction factor, 328, 338

defined, 49, 537

factors affecting, 18, 62, 309, 338, 342, 375

folate, 8–9, 15, 16, 196, 208–210, 211, 221, 227, 235, 239, 256, 428

folic acid, 225, 235

form of intake and, 15, 16, 88, 208– 210, 211, 221, 235, 239, 343, 428

from infant formula, 30, 402

methodological issues, 210, 225

niacin, 123, 128–129, 133

nutrient-nutrient interactions and, 15

pantothenic acid, 361

riboflavin, 88, 95

and risk assessment, 49, 53

from supplements, 1, 9, 18, 49, 208, 210, 235, 256, 259, 331, 334

thiamin, 62

vitamin B6, 150, 160–161, 165, 177

vitamin B12, 309, 328, 338, 342, 343

BioRad Quantaphase Radioassay, 206

Biotin, 374–389

absorption, 376

adolescents, 381, 382–383

adults (19–50 years), 374, 380, 382–383, 385

adverse effects, 384–385

AIs, 6, 11, 21, 374, 380–383, 566–567

assay methods, 379

avidin and, 375–376, 379, 380

bioavailability, 375–376, 378

children, 381

deficiency, 375, 377–378

dose-response assessment for ULs, 385

elderly (>70 years). See Adults, >70 years

excretion, 377, 378

exposure assessment, 385

factors affecting requirement, 380

fetal, 377, 385

food composition data, 35, 36, 37, 459

food sources, 384

function, 11, 27, 374–375

gender differences, 382

hazard identification, 384–385

and 3-hydroxyisovalerate, 375, 378–379, 382, 383

indicators of adequacy, 11, 378–379

infants, 6, 56, 374, 377–378, 380–381

intakes, 38–39, 374, 384

laboratory values, 452, 457, 459

lactation and, 383

life-stage group and, 38–39, 380–383

metabolism, 377

methods used to set AIs, 380–383

neurological disorders, 377

and odd-chain fatty acid composition of plasma lipids, 379

older adults (51+ years), 382

plasma concentrations, 379

pregnancy and, 33, 380, 382–383, 385

research recommendations, 385–386, 440

risk characterization, 385

special considerations, 383

supplement use, 38–39, 384

transport, 376–377

ULs, 13, 56, 374, 384–385

unit conversions, 452

Biotin deficiency facies, 377–378

Biotinidase, 375, 380, 383

Blacks

glucose-6-dehydrogenase status, 108

homocysteine levels, 158

pernicious anemia, 317

riboflavin, 91, 106

vitamin B6, 174

Blood pressure. See Hypertension

Body Mass Index, 24, 25, 260

Body odor, 408, 411

Body weight. See also Reference body weight ratio method

and nutrient deficiency development, 129 n.1

reference weights, 24–26

thiamin pyrophosphate and, 75



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