time for the design and implementation of studies that deal with some of the generic problems of air traffic control and advanced technology, such as the effects on system performance of passive monitoring by controllers using the precision runway monitor. Only by building the knowledge base now will the FAA be able to make sound decisions about the future cycles of automation and to help eliminate surprises from each successive wave.

RECOMMENDATION 1: During development of each automation function, system developers should consider possible interactions with other automation functions (under development or already existing), tools, and task requirements that form (or will form) the operational context into which the specific automation feature will be introduced.

RECOMMENDATION 2: Various research methods should be integrated: models, high- and medium-fidelity simulations, and more controlled laboratory experiments at all levels of system development. Laboratory experiments that can address many useful questions of interface design must consider contextual relevance. Results of these experiments should be used to inform more realistic simulations about what variables should be investigated. The results from these experiments should be used to help estimate and validate human (pilot and controller) performance parameters for computational models.

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