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The Future of Air Traffic Control: Human Operators and Automation APPENDIX C Biographical Sketches CHRISTOPHER D. WICKENS (Chair) is currently a professor of experimental psychology, head of the Aviation Research Laboratory, and associate director of the Institute of Aviation at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He also holds an appointment in the Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering and the Beckman Institute of Science and Technology. He is currently involved in aviation research concerning principles of human attention, perception, and cognition and their relation to display processing, multitask performance, and navigation in complex systems. He received an A.B. degree from Harvard University in 1967 and a Ph.D. from the University of Michigan in 1974 and served as a commissioned officer in the U.S. Navy from 1969 to 1972. He is a member and fellow of the Human Factors Society and received the Society's Jerome H. Ely award in 1981 for the best article in the Human Factors Journal, as well as the Paul M. Fitts award in 1985 for outstanding contributions to the education and training of human factors specialists by the Human Factors Society. In 1993 he received the Franklin Taylor award from Division 21 of the American Psychological Association and is a fellow of the association. He has also served on the National Research Council's Committee on Human Factors. CHARLES B. AALFS is a retired air traffic control specialist for the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). He has over 30 years of experience as an air traffic controller for both the U.S. Navy and the FAA. While with the FAA, he served as an air traffic controller, air traffic automation specialist, air traffic facility officer, air traffic facility manager, air traffic regional office automation specialist and branch manager, and division manager of resource management.
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The Future of Air Traffic Control: Human Operators and Automation When he retired, he was the manager of the new Southern California TRACON in San Diego, California. As an automation specialist, he was responsible for the software maintenance of the terminal automated radar system called ARTS III and IIIA. He is also the author of many design changes to the ARTS III program, one of which was the design to allow automated handoffs from one ARTS III site to another. TORA K. BIKSON is a senior scientist in RAND Corporation's Behavioral Sciences Department. Since 1980, her research has investigated properties of advanced information technologies in varied user contexts. Her work emphasizes field research design, intensive case studies, and large-scale cross-sectional studies addressed to the use of computer-based tools in organizational settings. She received B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. (1969) degrees in philosophy from the University of Missouri at Columbia and M.A. and Ph.D. (1974) degrees in psychology from the University of California at Los Angeles. She is a member of Data for Development, a United Nations Secretariat providing scientific guidance on the use of information systems in developing countries, and a technical consultant to the United Nations Advisory Commission on the Coordination of Information Systems. She is a frequent reviewer for professional papers and has authored a number of journal articles, book chapters, and research reports on the implementation of new interactive media. She is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Association for Computing Machinery, the Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility, the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues, and a fellow of the American Psychological Association. She recently served on the committee of the National Research Council's Computer Science and Telecommunications Board that produced Information Technology and the Service Society. MARVIN S. COHEN is founder and president of Cognitive Technologies, Inc. (CTI) in Arlington, Virginia. His professional interests include experimental research on human reasoning and decision making, elicitation and representation of expert knowledge, training cognitive skills in individuals and teams, development of decision support systems, human-computer interface design, and methods for representing and manipulating uncertainty. His current work at CTI includes experimental research on airline pilot decision making processes, training decision making skills under time stress in the ship-based anti-air-warfare environment, training for more effective distributed team decision making in naval air strike warfare, design of interfaces to enhance human performance with automatic target recognition devices, and modeling and training situation-assessment skills of Army battlefield commanders. He has an M.A. in philosophy from the University of Chicago and a Ph.D. in experimental psychology from Harvard University. For 11 years, he was at Decision Science Consortium, Inc., where he was vice president and director of cognitive science and decision systems. He
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The Future of Air Traffic Control: Human Operators and Automation has taught at George Washington University on the design of human-computer interfaces and has served on a committee of the National Research Council's Air Force Studies Board on tactical battle management. DIANE DAMOS is president of Damos Research Associates. Until recently, she was an associate professor of human factors at the University of Southern California. After receiving her doctorate in aviation psychology from the University of Illinois, she became a member of the faculty of the Department of Industrial Engineering at the State University of New York at Buffalo. Prior to joining the University of Southern California, she was also a member of the faculty of the Department of Psychology at Arizona State University. Her research interests have focused on pilot selection and multiple-task performance, including workload management in advanced automation aircraft. She has authored numerous books and papers and edited Multiple-Task Performance, which appeared in 1991. She is a member of the editorial board of the International Journal of Aviation Psychology. JAMES DANAHER is the chief of the Operational Factors Division of the Office of Aviation Safety at the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) in Washington, D.C. He has more than 35 years work experience in the human factors and safety fields, in both industry and government. Since joining NTSB in 1970, he has served in various supervisory and managerial positions, with special emphasis on human performance issues in flight operations and air traffic control. He has participated in the on-scene phase of numerous accident investigations, in associated public hearings, and in the development of NTSB recommendations for the prevention of future accidents. He is a former naval aviator and holds a commercial pilot's license with single-engine, multi-engine, and instrument ratings. He has an M.S. degree in experimental psychology from Ohio State University and is a graduate of the Federal Executive Institute. He has represented the NTSB at numerous safety meetings, symposia, and seminars and is the author or coauthor of numerous publications. ROBERT L. HELMREICH is professor of psychology at the University of Texas at Austin and director of the University of Texas Aerospace Crew Research Project. His research on team performance has included pilots, astronauts, aquanauts, air traffic controllers, and surgical teams. He has been involved with the definition and implementation of crew resource management training in aviation for nearly 20 years. He is author or editor of 5 books, including the forthcoming Culture at Work in Aviation and Medicine: National, Organizational, and Professional Influences (with Ashleigh Merritt). He has also published more than 190 chapters, monographs, and journal articles. Helmreich has B.A., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees from Yale University and served as an officer in the U.S. Navy. He is a fellow of the American Psychological Association and the American
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The Future of Air Traffic Control: Human Operators and Automation Psychological Society. He received the 1994 Flight Safety Foundation/ Aviation Week and Space Technology distinguished service award for 1994 for his contributions to the development of crew resource management and the 1997 David S. Sheridan award for distinguished service to mankind in the fields of science, medicine, and education. V. DAVID HOPKIN is an independent human factors consultant who is based part time at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University at Daytona Beach, Florida. He was formerly senior principal psychologist at the Royal Air Force Institute of Aviation Medicine at Farnborough and human factors consultant to the United Kingdom Civil Aviation Authority. He has also worked for the International Civil Aviation Organization, NATO, Eurocontrol, the Federal Aviation Administration, and numerous other international and national agencies. He has over 300 publications, including the 1995 Human Factors in Air Traffic Control. He has an M.A. in psychology from the University of Aberdeen, Scotland, and is a fellow of the Royal Institute of Navigation. JERRY S. KIDD is senior adviser for the Committee on Human Factors and its various projects. He received a Ph.D. from Northwestern University in social psychology in 1956; he then joined RAND Corporation to help on a project to simulate air defense operations. He left RAND in late 1956 to join the staff at the Laboratory of Aviation Psychology at Ohio State University. There he worked under Paul Fitts and George Briggs until 1962, when he joined the staff of AAI, Incorporated, north of Baltimore, Maryland. In 1964, he moved to the National Science Foundation as program director for special projects. He joined the faculty of the College of Library and Information Services at the University of Maryland in 1967 and retired in 1992. TODD R. LaPORTE is professor of political science and formerly associate director of the Institute of Governmental Studies at the University of California, Berkeley. He teaches and publishes in the areas of public administration, organization theory, and technology and politics, with emphasis on the decision making dynamics of large, complex, and technologically intensive (and hazardous) organizations, and the problems of governance and political legitimacy in a technological society. He is a member of the National Academy of Public Administration, was a research fellow with the Woodrow Wilson International Center of Scholars, and has held visiting research appointments with the Science Center in Berlin and the Max Planck Institute for Social Research in Cologne, Germany, and recently with the Los Alamos National Laboratory. He has a Ph.D. in political science from Stanford University. ANNE S. MAVOR is study director for the Panel on Human Factors in Air Traffic Control, the Panel on Modeling Human Behavior and Command Decision
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The Future of Air Traffic Control: Human Operators and Automation Making, and the Committee on Human Factors. Her previous work as a National Research Council senior staff officer has included a study of the scientific and technological challenges of virtual reality, a study of emerging needs and opportunities for human factors research, a study of modeling cost and performance of military enlistment, a review of federally sponsored education research activities, and a study to evaluate performance appraisal for merit pay. She is currently directing a study of modeling human behavior and command decision making in military simulations. For the past 25 years her work has concentrated on human factors, cognitive psychology, and information system design. Prior to joining the National Research Council she worked for the Essex Corporation, a human factors research firm, and served as a consultant to the College Board. She has an M.S. in experimental psychology from Purdue University. JAMES P. McGEE is a senior research associate supporting human factors and related activities in the Division on Education, Labor, and Human Performance of the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Prior to joining the National Research Council in 1994, he held scientific, technical, and management positions in human factors psychology at IBM, RCA, General Electric, General Dynamics, and United Technologies corporations. He has also instructed courses in applied psychology and general psychology at several colleges. He is a member of the Potomac chapter of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society and of the American Psychological Association. He has a Ph.D. in experimental psychology from Fordham University. RAJA PARASURAMAN is professor of psychology and director of the Cognitive Science Laboratory at the Catholic University of America in Washington, D.C. Currently he is also a visiting scientist at the Laboratory of Brain and Cognition at the National Institute of Mental Health in Bethesda, Maryland. Since 1982 he has been at the Catholic University of America, where he has carried out research on attention, againg, automation, cognitive neuroscience, vigilance, and workload. He has a B.Sc. (Hons.) in electrical engineering from Imperial College, University of London (1972), and an M.Sc. in applied psychology (1973) and Ph.D. in psychology from the University of Aston, Birmingham (1976). He is a fellow of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society and received the society's award for the best article in 1993 in the journal Ergonomics in Design, as well as the society's Jerome H. Ely Award for best article in 1996 in the journal Human Factors . He is also a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Psychological Association (Division 21, Engineering Psychology), the American Psychological Society, and the Washington Academy of Sciences, and a member of the Association of Aviation Psychologists, the Psychonomics Society, the Society for Neuroscience, and the Society for Psychophysiological Research.
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The Future of Air Traffic Control: Human Operators and Automation JOSEPH O. PITTS retired from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in 1993, after more than 36 years of government service. He is currently employed by the VITRO Corporation, which supports the FAA through its surveillance technical assistance contract. He supports the integrated terminal weather system program and the air traffic weather division. While employed by the FAA, he held positions as air traffic manager, assistant air traffic manager, branch manager, area manager, and full-performance-level air traffic controller at several air traffic control facilities. In the last 10 years of his tenure with the FAA, he had the responsibility of managing several research engineering and development programs at FAA headquarters; he was very active in both the FAA's facilities and equipment and research engineering and development budgets. THOMAS B. SHERIDAN is Ford professor emeritus of engineering and applied psychology in the Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Aeronautics and Astronautics and director of the Human-Machine Systems Laboratory at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). His research has been on mathematical models of human operator and socioeconomic systems, on man-computer interaction in piloting aircraft and in supervising undersea and industrial robotic systems, on computer graphic technology for information searching and group decision making, and on arms control. He has an S.M. degree from the University of California, a Sc.D. from MIT, and an honorary doctorate from Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands. He has served as president of both the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society and the IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Society and is a fellow of both organizations. He has chaired the National Research Council's Committee on Human Factors and has served on numerous other NRC committees. He is senior editor of the MIT Press journal Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments and is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. PAUL STAGER is professor of psychology at York University, where he has taught since receiving a Ph.D. from Princeton University in 1966. A licensed pilot, his research has been concerned with system evaluation, human error, computer-human interface design, and human performance assessment in complex operational systems, most often in the context of aviation. During the past 20 years, his research has addressed several human factors issues in air traffic control, including the potential impact of bilingual communications on instrument flight operations, the precipitating conditions for operational errors, and the human engineering specifications for an advanced workstation design. Since 1989, he has advised the federal government and, more recently, NAV CANADA on all human engineering associated with the development and evaluation of the Canadian automated air traffic system (CAATS). He was a lecturer at the 1990 NATO Advanced Study Institute on automation and systems issues in air traffic
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The Future of Air Traffic Control: Human Operators and Automation control and, as codirector of the 1992 Advanced Study Institute on the verification and validation of complex human-machine systems, he edited (with J. Wise and D. Hopkin) Verification and Validation of Complex Systems: Human Factors Issues (1993). RICHARD B. STONE retired from Delta Airlines after almost 35 years as a pilot. He served as a line check airman and his last assignment was flying the B 767 extended range to Europe. During his years as an airline pilot, he also acted as an aircraft accident investigator, represented airline pilots in medical matters, and served as the president of the International Society of Air Safety Investigators. He currently acts as a safety consultant in aviation. He has a B.S. from the University of Illinois and an M.S. from the University of New Hampshire. He received his flight training from the U.S. Air Force. EARL L. WIENER is a professor of management science at the University of Miami. He served as a pilot in the U.S. Air Force and the U.S. Army and is rated in fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft. Since 1979 he has been active in the aeronautics and cockpit automation research of the NASA Ames Research Center. He has a B.A. in psychology from Duke University and a Ph.D. in psychology and industrial engineering from Ohio State University. He is a fellow and former president of the Human Factors Society and a fellow of the American Psychological Association. He served two terms on the FAA's Research, Engineering, and Development Advisory Council and currently is a member of the National Research Council's Committee on Human Factors. He was the 1997 recipient of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Arnold Small Award. He is the editor (with D. Nagel) of Human Factors in Aviation (1988) and Cockpit Resource Management (with B. Kanki and R. Helmreich, 1993). LAURENCE R. YOUNG is Apollo program professor of astronautics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). He is director of the newly established National Space Biomedical Research Institute, with headquarters in Houston. He is a member of both the National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine. His research is in the application of control theory to human-vehicle problems, particularly eye movements and spatial orientation, flight simulators, and space laboratory experimentation on vestibular function. He was a principal investigator of five Spacelab missions, and served as an alternate payload specialist astronaut for the 1993 Spacelab life sciences flight of the space shuttle. He is a consultant to various industrial and government organizations and has served on the Committee on Human Factors, the Committee on the Space Station, the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board, and the Air Force Studies Board of the National Research Council. He has received the Franklin V. Taylor award in human factors from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, the Dryden lectureship from the American Institute of
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The Future of Air Traffic Control: Human Operators and Automation Aeronautics and Astronautics, the Hansen award of the Aerospace Human Factors Association, and the prestigious Koestler Foundation prize in Switzerland. He is a fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and former president and Alza lecturer of the Biomedical Engineering Society. He has an A.B. in physics from Amherst College, S.B. and S.M. degrees in electrical engineering from MIT, an Sc.D. in instrumentation from MIT, and a certificat de license in mathematics from the University of Paris.
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