Index

A

Accountability, 226

for air safety, 1

in four-dimensional contracts, 177

Action implementation

in automated conflict resolution, 164-165

degree of uncertainty in, 16

level of automation, 3, 14, 243-244

recommendations for, 3, 243-244

Action selection

automation concerns, 240-241

continuum of automation, 14-15, 16, 243

explication of intention, 30

information acquisition vs., 14

Actions interpreter, 55

Adaptable automation, 39-40, 43

recommendations for, 244-245

Adaptive automation

adaptable operations, 39-40, 43

benefits, 40, 41-43

definition, 38

operation of, 39

potential limitations of, 43-44

task allocation, 39, 40-41

task partitioning, 39

Advanced automation system, 187

Advanced oceanic automation system, 66, 99

Air route surveillance radar, 86

Air route traffic control center

flight strip distribution, 118, 119

technical evolution in, 120

Air traffic control interfacility data communications, 66

Air traffic control system

components, 225

failure recovery model, 23

flight management system compatibility, 117, 118

function, 1

operational goals, 226-227

Air Traffic Control System Command Center, 64

Airborne information for lateral spacing, 145-147

Aircraft target identification system, 150

Airport movement area safety system, 148-150

Airport surface detection equipment, 148



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OCR for page 305
The Future of Air Traffic Control: Human Operators and Automation Index A Accountability, 226 for air safety, 1 in four-dimensional contracts, 177 Action implementation in automated conflict resolution, 164-165 degree of uncertainty in, 16 level of automation, 3, 14, 243-244 recommendations for, 3, 243-244 Action selection automation concerns, 240-241 continuum of automation, 14-15, 16, 243 explication of intention, 30 information acquisition vs., 14 Actions interpreter, 55 Adaptable automation, 39-40, 43 recommendations for, 244-245 Adaptive automation adaptable operations, 39-40, 43 benefits, 40, 41-43 definition, 38 operation of, 39 potential limitations of, 43-44 task allocation, 39, 40-41 task partitioning, 39 Advanced automation system, 187 Advanced oceanic automation system, 66, 99 Air route surveillance radar, 86 Air route traffic control center flight strip distribution, 118, 119 technical evolution in, 120 Air traffic control interfacility data communications, 66 Air traffic control system components, 225 failure recovery model, 23 flight management system compatibility, 117, 118 function, 1 operational goals, 226-227 Air Traffic Control System Command Center, 64 Airborne information for lateral spacing, 145-147 Aircraft target identification system, 150 Airport movement area safety system, 148-150 Airport surface detection equipment, 148

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The Future of Air Traffic Control: Human Operators and Automation Airport surface traffic automation, 150, 217 Airport surveillance radar, 86 Airspace capacity, 5, 246 airport capacity and, 179 automation effects, 23 Airspace complexity, 3-4, 23, 245 Airspace density, 3-4, 23, 245 Airways facilities specialists, 64 Alarm design, 32-33 aural advisory, 128 in precision runway monitor/final monitor aid, 143 traffic alert and collision avoidance system, 128 Approach spacing, 139 precision runway monitor/final monitor aid, 139-147 ARC2000, 165 Area navigation, 113 Aural advisory, 128 in precision runway monitor/final monitor aid, 143, 147 Authority structure for automated certification of maintenance, 196, 197-198 center TRACON automation system and, 163-164 expectations for human-centered automation system, 241 for four-dimensional contracts, 175-176, 177 for free flight, 225, 227, 232, 234-235, 258 for maintaining separation in human-centered automation, 239-240 management of human factors program, 220-224 precision runway monitor/final monitor aid and, 143, 145 recommendations for, 6-7, 246-247, 257-258 residence, 5-6 shifts in perceived authority, 227 for surface movement advisor program, 182 traffic alert and collision avoidance system, 132 Automated radar terminal system, 67, 87, 88 display, 120 in flight information processing system, 118 function, 118, 120 HOST processor and, 120 implementation, 215 pilot-controller communications, 125 reliability, 125 team functioning, 126 technical evolution, 120-121 training requirements, 124-125 workload requirements, 124 Automated surface observing systems, 66, 97 Automated weather observing systems, 66, 97 Automatic dependent surveillance, 95-96 broadcast mode, 101, 250 B Blackboard systems, 53-54 C Capacity maturity model, 21 Center TRACON automation system, 36 adaptive automation, 41-43 cognitive task analysis in, 160-161 communications load, 162 compatibility with other systems, 217 complacency effects, 163 computational modeling of systems integration, 207 conflict probe in, 164-165 descent advisor, 157-158 final approach spacing tool, 158 functionality, 156 historical development, 159 human factors in implementation, 159-160, 212 mode errors, 162 organizational issues, 163-164 prospects, 164, 255

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The Future of Air Traffic Control: Human Operators and Automation recommendations for, 255 simulation studies of systems integration, 208 skill degradation risk, 163 traffic management advisor, 157 training for, 161 user trust, 162-163 workload effects, 161 Central weather service unit, 99 Certification of maintenance operations, 187-188 automation of, 187-188, 196 conceptual trends, 188 Civil Aeromedical Institute, 220 Coding skills, 37-38 Cognitive processes auditory communication, 102 in automated ground collision avoidance systems, 153 automation applications, 64-65 in center TRACON automation system, 160-161 coding, 37-38 communication processes, 103-104 complacency in failure detection, 30-31 handling of paper flight strips, 121-122 human factors task analysis, 213 in maintenance operations, 190-193 mental model of automated processes, 28-29 in precision runway monitor/final monitor aid, 141-142 principal activities of air traffic control, 64 skill degradation in automation, 36 skills for automated environments, 37-38 in traffic alert and collision avoidance system, 130 in use of converging runway display aid, 136 in use of data link technologies, 104-105 visualization, 48 See also Decision making; Information acquisition; Situation awareness Collision avoidance systems global positioning system applications, 91 prospective automated systems, 127. See also specific system recommendations for ground operations, 254 Combining systems compatibility concerns, 217-218 computational modeling, 207 error-inducing risk, 218 human factors issues, 154, 182-183 recommendations for research, 261 simulation studies, 208 testing needs, 218 Communications technologies automated radar terminal system, 125 automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast mode, 101, 250 bandwidth issues, 100-101 collaborative virtual environments, 59-60 current limitations, 102 flight management system, 112, 115-116 groupware, 60 human cognitive factors, 103-104 message gating, 109-110 pilot party-line communications, 108 spatial video conferencing, 59 voice loops, 58-59 voice switching and control system, 67-68 See also Data link technology; Flight information presentation; Graphic displays Complacency in flight management system aircraft, 116 overtrust of automation, 30-32 in use of center TRACON automation system, 163 Computational modeling, 206-207 Computer-assisted cooperative work advanced groupware, 60 communication applications, 58-59

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The Future of Air Traffic Control: Human Operators and Automation distinctive features, 57-58 goals, 56-57 prospects, 61, 249 research needs, 60-61 shared space approaches, 59-60 Computer-oriented metering planning and advisory system (COMPAS), 158-159, 165 Computer technology for automation, 12 availability, 244 decision aiding systems, 50. See also specific system historical development in air traffic control, 120 limitations of decision aiding systems, 50-51 for runway management, 135-136 for training, 184-186 visualization technologies, 48-50 Confidence estimates, 15-16 Conflict avoidance on the ground, 147-155 pilot maneuver selection in free flight, 236 Conflict probe current use, 164, 165 display, 164 features, 164 function, 164-165 mode errors, 170 prospects, 255 Conflict resolution, 3, 243-244 controller skills for, 37-38 decision making aids, 165 free flight scenario, 5, 237 intent inferencing technologies for, 56 negotiation theory, 237 user request evaluation tool for, 165-167 Controller skills, 64 collaborative problem solving, 13 degradation in TCAS, 133 for future automation, 37-38 for maintaining separation between aircraft, 37 strengths, 12-13 vulnerabilities, 12 Controller-to-pilot data link, 66 Converging runway display aid cognitive task analysis in, 136 communications needs, 137 functionality, 135 historical development, 135-136 implementation, 136 mental models, 138 mode errors, 138 organizational effects, 137 prospects, 138-139 recommendations for, 253 skills degradation risk, 138 training for, 137 user trust, 138 workload issues, 137 Cost-effectiveness design, 213-214 Cultural background, 46, 115 recommendations for research, 248 D Data entry flight information processing systems, 124 for integrated displays, 123 point-and-click, 123, 124 Data link technologies automation issues, 109-110 current status, 102 features and functions, 101-102 in flight management system, 109 for four-dimensional contracts, 175 ground use, 108-109 human factors implementation, 102-103 human factors issues, 103-109 message gating, 109-110 multiple-task performance and, 106 potential communication errors, 106-108 prospects, 110, 250 rationale, 102 recommendations for, 250-251 simulation studies, 208-209 team functioning, 108

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The Future of Air Traffic Control: Human Operators and Automation transmission time, 104-105 workload issues, 105-106 Decision making in adaptive automation, 39 automation concerns, 50-51, 240-241 automation goals, 3, 243-244 collaborative skills, 13 computer technologies for aiding, 50, 165, 249. See also specific technology controller strengths, 12-13 levels of automation for, 14, 243 potential problems of automation, 38-49 recommendations for automation implementation, 3, 243-244 residence of authority, 6 team functioning, 46 Decision threshold, 32-33 Dependence on automation, 30 Descent advisor, 157-158 Design alarms, 33 cost-effectiveness criteria, 213-214 decision making process, 213-214 emergency recovery considerations, 5 FAA human factors guidelines, 219 harmonization of multiple systems, 217-218 human factors considerations, 1-2, 203 human factors specialists in, 8, 212 incremental development, 214 integrated interfaces with automation, 123-124 integrated product teams, 211-212 maintenance control center human-computer interface, 189 presentation format, 121-122 prototyping, 212-213 recommendations for future national system, 258 recommendations for process, 7-8, 259, 260 research linkage, 203 significance of flight strips, 121, 122, 124 software, 20, 21 subsystem development, 217 system failure considerations, 44 user involvement, 211, 212, 213 See also Research Direct user access terminal system, 66, 100 Display system replacement, 65, 67, 99, 187, 217 Dynamic ocean tracking system, 66 E Efficiency, 2 data link technologies, 103 free flight effectiveness, 232-233 free flight rationale, 228-229 goals for air traffic control, 226-227 goals of automation, 11-12 limitations of current system, 174 source of inefficiency in aviation, 228 Electronics specialists, 193-194 Event tree analysis, 17-18 Exemplar-based decision making, 53 Expert systems, 51-52 F Failure detection complacency in, 30-31 gradual failures, 31 rare events, 30-31 Failure recovery automation effects, 3-4, 23-28, 245 conflict probe failure, 173 design considerations, 5 determinants of, 4 human-centered automation, 240 interactive planning tool concerns, 255 model of air traffic control, 23 recommendations for research, 4-5, 245, 246 response time, 25-28 system design considerations, 44-45 trust of automation as factor in, 29-34 See also System failure

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The Future of Air Traffic Control: Human Operators and Automation False alarms, 32-33 in automated radar terminal system, 125 precision runway monitor/final monitor aid, 144 in traffic alert and collision avoidance system, 130-131, 132-133 Familiarity of systems, 30 Fault tree analysis, 4, 245 technique, 17 Federal Aviation Administration automation of maintenance tasks, 187, 189 commercial/nondevelopmental acquisitions, 219 free flight policy, 228, 229 ground safety policy, 147-148, 149, 154 human factors guidelines, 219 human factors research in, 203-204, 220-221 laboratory research, 208 maintenance operations certification, 187-188 proposed research program, 221-224 recommendations for, 7-8, 259-260 surface movement advisor project, 179 zero accident policy, 11 Field testing advantages of, for human factors research, 209-210 application, 209 information acquisition, 210 methodological concerns, 210 multiple systems, 218 Filtering of information, 15 Final approach spacing tool, 158 Final monitor aid. See Precision runway monitor/final monitor aid Flight data input/output computer system, 66, 119 Flight data processor, 118 Flight information presentation airborne information for lateral spacing, 146 descent advisor, 158 design challenges, 121, 124 expectations for human-centered automation system, 241-242 in four-dimensional contracts, 178 free flight cockpit display, 230, 236 integrated displays, 123-124 prospects, 248-249 significance of flight strips, 121-122 transition to electronic displays, 122 See also Graphic displays; Visualization technologies Flight information processing en route and terminal, 124-126 human factors issues, 124-126 primary elements, 118. See also specific element workload, 124 Flight management system air traffic control system compatibility, 117, 118 autoland feature, 113 communications, 112, 115-116 crew coordination issues, 115-116 with data link communication, 109 display units, 114 error management, 116 functionality, 111-112 hardware, 111 history, 112-113 human factors issues, 113-118, 251 job satisfaction issues, 116 pilot complacency, 116 pilot mode errors, 35 recommendations for, 251-252 risk of catastrophic failure, 117 training and proficiency maintenance, 116 workload effects, 114 Flight path planning consistent mental model of airspace, 240 free flight systems, 5 HOST processing, 118-119 pilot vs. dispatcher decision making, 236 technical evolution, 119-120 Flight service station facilities, 64 Flight services, proposed automation, 66

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The Future of Air Traffic Control: Human Operators and Automation Flight strips computer-assisted cooperative work, 57 distribution, 118, 119 electronic, 121 integrated electronic displays, 123-124 physical qualities, 122 recommendations for, 252 significance of, for system redesign, 121-122, 124 technical development, 120, 121 transition to electronic, 122, 252 Four-dimensional contracts accountability, 177 display, 178 failure recovery, 178 functionality, 174-176 human factors issues, 176-178 prospects, 256 rationale, 173-174 recommendations for, 256 Free flight air traffic control role, 231, 232 aircraft positioning technology, 230 alert zone, 230 authority structure, 225, 227, 232, 234-235, 258 characteristics, 12 cockpit display, 230, 236 components, 225-226 conceptual basis, 225, 228 conflict resolution, 5, 237 constrained/unconstrained airspace, 231 controller workload, 235-236 current airspace characteristics, 229 current implementation, 5 current research activity, 228 definition, 1 efficiency, 229, 232-233 equipment needs, 234 goals, 225 historical development, 228 horizontal, 229 implementation considerations, 237 information distribution, 225, 227 intent inferencing in, 230-231 pilot maneuver selection in conflict avoidance, 236 rationale, 228-229 recommendations for, 7, 247 research needs, 6, 7 residence of authority, 6 rules of the road, 231 safety concerns, 6, 233-234, 238, 246-247, 258 simulation modeling, 237-238 situation awareness concerns, 235 strategic, 5, 229 system characteristics, 5 tactical, 5, 229 unresolved issues, 232-233 vertical, 229 vs. automation, 238 vs. four-dimensional contracts, 176 Funding, recommendations for, 8, 260 G Glass cockpit, 115, 116 Global positioning system for free flight, 230 potential applications, 90-91 potential limitations, 92-93, 94-96, 249-250 prospects, 85-86, 89 susceptibility to jamming, 93-94 susceptibility to spoofing, 94 Graphic displays digital, 49 four-dimensional contracts, 178 precision runway monitor/final monitor aid, 141-142 role of, 48-49 vertical profile display, 249 vs. text messages, 109-110 See also Flight information presentation; Visualization technologies Ground collision/incursion avoidance automated systems, 148-151 frequency, 147 human factors issues, 151-155

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The Future of Air Traffic Control: Human Operators and Automation policy goals, 147-148, 154 prospects, 154-155 Groupware systems, 60 GS-2101 job classification, 193-194, 195, 257 H Highly interactive problem solver displays, 170 functionality, 168 human factors implementation, 168-170 mode error protection, 170 situation awareness, 171 skill degradation risk, 172 team functioning, 172 user acceptance, 173 user trust, 171-172 Holographic displays, 49 HOST processor, 86-87, 88 automated radar terminal system and, 120 displays, 119 in flight information processing system, 118 function, 118-119 implementation, 120 workload requirements, 124 Human-centered automation as adaptable automation, 39-40 authority for separation, 239-240 concerns about, 239-241 expected system features, 241-242 failure recovery, 240 principle of, 2, 13 projections for implementation, 238-239 Human error reliability analysis, 19 susceptibility of incompatible systems, 218 system design considerations, 44 types of, 19 Human Factors Acquisition Requirements and Planning, 219 I Implementation of automation automated radar terminal system, 124-125 availability of technology as basis for, 244 center TRACON automation system, 159-160 converging runway display aid, 136 data link technologies, 102-103 human factors consideration, 215 incremental approach, 214 long-range planning, 260-261 ongoing data collection, 216-217 operator's mental model, 34-35 precision runway monitor/final monitor aid, 141 Programme for Harmonised Air Traffic Management Research in Eurocontrol, 168-170 projections for, 239 recommendations for, 7-8, 259-260 significance of flight strips, 121-122 surface movement advisor program, 180-181 traffic alert and collision avoidance system, 129-130 training, 215, 216 transition to electronic displays, 122 use acceptance considerations, 215-216 Implementation of free flight regime, 237-238 Incident analysis, 205-206 Information acquisition, 3, 14 automated operations, 15-16 automated radar terminal system, 120 coding skills, 37-38 field studies, 210 flight information processing system, 118 ongoing, after implementation, 216-217 for surface movement advisor program, 179 for surveillance technologies, 85 team functioning, 45 weather data, 96-97

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The Future of Air Traffic Control: Human Operators and Automation Information automation, 3, 14 levels of, 3, 243 operations in information acquisition, 15-16 situation awareness and, 23 team performance and, 45 vs. action implementation, 14 Information distribution, 15 expectations for human-centered automation system, 241 flight strips, 118, 119 in free flight concept, 225, 227 recommendations for TCAS, 253 weather data, 97, 250 Instrument flight rules, GPS and, 90-91 Integrated product teams, 211-212 recommendations for, 8, 259 Integrated terminal weather system, 99 Integrity checks, 16 Intent inferencing applications, 55 characteristics, 55 for free flight, 230-231 plan and goal graph, 55 prospects, 51, 55-56, 134 shared model of intent, 56 Intentions of automated systems, 30 Interpersonal factors communications in TCAS, 131-132, 134 cultural background differences, 46, 248 free flight negotiations, 237 reliability analysis and, 19 See also Team performance J Job satisfaction, 116, 173 maintenance employees, 198 L Laboratory research, 207-208 Landing systems flight management system, 113 global positioning system applications, 90-91 Learning systems, 53 Loss of separation, 5 n.2, 244, 246 Low-level wind shear alert system, 97 M Maintenance control center, 189 Maintenance operations automation functions, 187, 199 automation of certification, 188 certification requirements, 187-188 cognitive task analysis, 190-193 communications needs, 194-195, 197-198 conceptual trends, 198-199 failure response, 195-196 Federal Aviation Administration policy, 187, 188, 189 GS-2101 job classification, 193-194, 195, 257 human factors implementation, 189-190 human factors issues, 190, 256-257 mental model for, 197 national coordination, 189-190 organizational structure for, 195, 197-198 recommendations for, 257 scope, 186-187 skill degradation risk in automation, 197 training, 193-194 trust of automation in, 196 workload considerations, 193 Management, system failure related to, 44-45 Mental models, 28-29 for automated ground collision avoidance systems, 153 definition and characteristics, 34 failure prevention strategies, 34-35 fixed airspace structure, 240 for maintenance operations, 197 mistrust caused by, 35 mode errors related to, 35

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The Future of Air Traffic Control: Human Operators and Automation of precision runway monitor/final monitor aid, 144 of resolution advisory, 133-134 significance of flight strips, 121 as source of automation failure, 34, 35 for surface movement advisor program, 181 team perfomance issues, 45-46 in traffic alert and collision avoidance system, 133-134 in use of converging runway display aid, 138 Midair collision predictive modeling, 4-5, 26, 246 Mode errors, 35 center TRACON automation system, 162 conflict probes, 170 converging runway display aid, 138 precision runway monitor/final monitor aid, 143-144 protection in highly interactive problem solver, 170 traffic alert and collision avoidance system, 132-133 Monitoring adaptive task allocation, 40-41 competition for visual attention, 106 detection of rare events, 30-31 intelligent decision aiding, 50-51 voice loops, 58-59 See also Situation awareness; Vigilance N National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 11, 51, 102, 114, 129, 215, 217, 238 advanced air transportation technology program, 26, 55-56, 237 airborne parallel approach monitoring, 145, 148 airport arrival and landings management research, 159-160 Ames Center, 220 free flight research, 228 human factors research, 220, 221, 224, 260 surface movement advisor project, 179, 180 taxi navigation and situation awareness program, 150-151, 153 National Institutes of Health, 221 National route plan, 5 Near-midair collisions, 5, 26 Negotiation theory, 237 Neural network models, 53 Nondevelopmental items, 219-220 O Oceanic automation program, 66 Oceanic data link, 66 Oceanic display and planning system, 66, 99 Oceanic in-trail climb procedure, 5 definition, 229 Oceanic navigation automated features, 81-84t current practice, 66 proposed automation, 66-67 Off-the-shelf acquisitions, 219-220 Operational and supportability implementation system, 66 Operational Display and Input Development, 123-124 Operator function model expert system, 55 P Pattern recognition, 53 Perspective displays, 49 PHARE. See Programme for Harmonised Air Traffic Management Research in Eurocontrol PHIDIAS, 123 Pilot skills maintenance, 116 Plan and goal graph, 55

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The Future of Air Traffic Control: Human Operators and Automation Precision runway monitor/final monitor aid airborne information for lateral spacing and, 145, 146-147 cognitive task analysis in, 141-142 concerns about, 253-254 functionality, 139-140 historical development, 140-141 implementation, 141 mental models, 144 mode errors, 143-144 organizational issues, 143, 145 pilot-controller communication, 142-143, 145, 147 prospects, 147 recommendations for, 254 skill degradation risk, 144 training for, 142 user trust in, 144 workload issues, 142, 147 Predictive modeling center TRACON automation system, 160-161 flight path, in user request evaluation tool, 165-166 four-dimensional contracts, 174-176 of free flight design concepts, 7 free flight implementation, 237-238 highly interactive problem solver for, 168 human response to error, 26-27 learning systems, 53 midair collisions, 4-5, 26, 246 recommendations for, 4-5, 246 recovery response time, 25-28 separation standards risk assessment, 233 software testing, 20 system failure research needs, 26-28 Preflight briefings, 66 Proficiency maintenance for flight management, 116 Profile display, 49 Programme for Harmonised Air Traffic Management Research in Eurocontrol (PHARE), 174 Advanced Tools Problem Solver, 168, 177-178 en route interface, 168 features, 167-168 functionality, 168 highly interactive problem solver, 168-171 human factors implementation, 168-170 workload effects, 170 Prototyping, 212-213 R Radar data processor, 118 Radar processing system, 85 accuracy, 88-89 features and functions, 86-87 limitations, 87 primary radar, 86 prospects, 89 redundancies, 87, 89 reliability, 87-88 secondary radar, 86, 100-101 vs. global positioning system, 95-96 Rare events, 30-31 Recovery response time, 25-26 Reduced aircraft separation risk assessment model, 233 Reliability analysis calculating for unforeseen events, 18 human factors, 19 interpretation of numerical data, 18-19 outputs, 18 role of, 21 software factors, 19-21 techniques, 17-18 Reliability of systems, 29 automated radar terminal system, 125 false alarms, 32-33 human trust and, 30, 32-33 Research computational models, 206-207 current distribution, 220 design process linkage, 203 evaluation of off-the-shelf acquisitions, 219-220 field studies, 209-210

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The Future of Air Traffic Control: Human Operators and Automation free flight, 228, 237-238 incident analysis, 205-206 integration of human factors program, 203-204 laboratory studies, 207-208 literature search, 205 long-range planning, 260-261 management of human factors program, 220-224 methodological integration, 211 methodologies, 204-205 ongoing data collection, 216-217 organizational model, 221 recommendations for methodology, 261 systems analysis, 210-211 See also Design Resolution advisories, 36 adaptive automation, 41-43 mental models, 133-134 in traffic alert and collision avoidance system, 128, 129-132, 133-134 Robustness of automation, 30 Runway status lights system, 150, 152 S Safety automation concerns, 1 free flight maneuvering and, 6, 233-234, 238, 246-247 future automation concerns, 36 goals, 11, 226-227 recommendations for future national system, 258 Separation between aircraft airborne information for lateral spacing, 145-147 authority for, in human-centered automation, 239-240 current controller skills, 37 future controller skills, 37 predictive modeling, 4-5 risk assessment, 233 runway management, 135 use of converging runway display aid, 135, 139 Severe conditions, 37 Shared model of intent, 56 SIMMOD, 206 SIMNET, 185-186 Simulated environments free flight testing, 237-238 methodological concerns, 209 on personal computers, 184-185 research applications, 208-209 team functioning studies, 209 Situation awareness in automated ground collision avoidance systems, 153 automation effects, 23-25 computational model research, 206-207 in conflict probe use, 171 emergency recovery concerns, 4 free flight concerns, 235 global positioning system applications, 91 mental model of automation and, 28-29 overtrust effects, 32 recommendations for research, 5, 246 for surface movement advisor program, 181-182 taxi navigation system, 150-151 team performance issues, 46 Skill degradation in automated ground collision avoidance systems, 153 automation effects, 25, 35-36, 245 in automation of maintenance, 197 in center TRACON automation system, 163 in conflict probe use, 172 in converging runway display aid, 138 emergency recovery concerns, 4 risk in precision runway monitor/final monitor aid, 144 strategies for preventing, 36-37 in surface movement advisor program, 181 team functioning, 47 in traffic alert and collision avoidance system, 133

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The Future of Air Traffic Control: Human Operators and Automation SOAR model, 206 Software design, 20, 21 reliability analysis, 19-21 self-monitoring, 31 trustworthiness testing, 20 Standard terminal automatic replacement system, 67, 88, 217, 220 Standard visual flight rules, 5 Surface movement advisor program, 217 cognitive functioning in, 181-182 effects of combining systems, 182-183 functionality, 179-180 goals, 179 human factors in implementation, 180-181 information acquisition, 179 potential upgrades, 179-180 prospects, 256 recommendations for, 256 skill degradation risk, 181 team functioning, 182 user trust, 181 Surveillance technologies global positioning system, 85-86, 90-96, 249-250 information base, 85 radar processing system, 85, 86-89 role of, 85 System failure causes of, 22 complexity of, 22 definition, 21-22 design considerations, 44 existing conditions, 22 ground collision avoidance systems, 153 maintenance specialist response, 195-196 management considerations, 44-45 research needs for modeling, 26-28 severity differences, 22 time course, 22 vulnerabilities of air traffic control system, 23 See also Failure recovery Systems analysis, 210-211 T Task allocation, 39 adaptive, 40-41 Task partitioning, 39 Taxi navigation and situation awareness system, 150-151, 153 Team performance in automated ground collision avoidance systems, 154 automated radar terminal system effects, 126 automation issues, 45-47 collaborative decision making, 46 computer-assisted cooperative work, 56-61 conflict probe use, 172 data link communication technologies, 108 flight management system, 115-116 information distribution, 45 integrated product teams, 211-212 in maintenance operations, 195, 197-198 recommendations for, 248 shared mental models, 45-46 significance of flight strips, 121-122 simulation studies, 209 surface movement advisor program, 182 Team resource management, 47 Technical Center, 220 Telecommunications processor, 66 Telepresence, 60 Terminal Doppler weather radar, 97, 99 TRACON automated features, 73-76t radar processing system, 86, 87 Traffic alert and collision avoidance system aural advisory, 128 cognitive task analysis in, 130 communications in, 131-132, 134, 253 conflict resolution advisories, 5 conflict resolution software, 237 effects on organizational functioning, 132

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The Future of Air Traffic Control: Human Operators and Automation free flight concept and, 229 functionality, 128 historical evolution, 129 implementation, 129-130, 215 incident analysis, 205 mode errors, 132-133 prospects, 134, 252 recommendations for, 253 redundant monitoring role, 128 resolution advisories, 128 responses to resolution advisories, 129-132, 133-134 training for, 131, 215 user mental model, 133-134 user skill degradation in, 133 user trust, 133 workload issues, 130-131 Traffic flow management center TRACON automation system, 156-164 computer-oriented metering planning and advisory system, 158-159 converging runway display aid, 135-139 ground collision avoidance systems, 148-151 human factors in ground collision avoidance systems, 151-155 learning systems for, 53 precision runway monitor/final monitor aid, 139-147 recommendations for ground operations, 254 Traffic management advisor, 157 Training, 2 assessment of, 215 for automated radar terminal system, 124-125 for center TRACON automation system, 161 for converging runway display aid, 137 crew resource management, 115 embedded, 185, 215 expert systems for, 52 for flight management system, 116 human factors, 8, 186, 259 for human factors research, 224 implementation, 216 for maintenance operations, 193-194 for precision runway monitor/final monitor aid system, 142 recommendations for, 248, 260 software engineers, 21 system installation considerations, 215 technology advances, 184-186 for traffic alert and collision avoidance system, 131 virtual reality, 185-186 Trust attributes, 30 in automated ground collision avoidance systems, 151-152 calibration, 19, 34 causes of mistrust, 35 of center TRACON automation system, 162-163 in conflict probes, 171-172 continuum, 29-30 of converging runway display aid, 138 in human performance by system designers, 44 of maintenance automation, 196 mistrust effects, 32-33 overtrust effects, 30-32 in precision runway monitor/final monitor aid, 144 of surface movement advisor program, 181 in traffic alert and collision avoidance system, 133 U Uncertainty, 16 Understandability of systems, 30 Unforeseen events, 18 Universal access transceiver, 217 User-preferred routing. See Free flight User request enabling, 16 User request evaluation tool failure recovery, 173 functionality, 165-166

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The Future of Air Traffic Control: Human Operators and Automation human factors considerations in implementation, 167 mode errors, 170 situation awareness, 171 skill degradation risk, 172 team functioning, 172 user acceptance, 173 user trust, 171-172 workload issues, 171 V Vertical profile display, 249 Vigilance demands of precision runway monitor/final monitor aid system, 142 in flight management system aircraft, 116 sources of complacency, 30-32 See also Monitoring; Situation awareness Virtual environments, collaborative, 59-60 Virtual reality controller, 186 tower operations, 186 training applications, 185-186 Visual flight rules, 229 Visualization technologies, 48-50 competition for visual attention, 106 See also Flight information presentation; Graphic displays Voice loops, 58-59 Voice switching and control system, 67-68 Volpe Center, 220 W Warning threshold, 32-33 Weather current reporting systems, 97, 250 data acquisition, 96-97 data distribution, 97, 250 en route reporting system, 99 future prospects, 99, 250 proposed reporting systems, 97 reporting systems for pilots, 100 terminal reporting system, 97-99 Weather system processor, 99 Wind shear reporting system, 97, 99 Workload adaptive automation for reducing, 41 center TRACON automation system, 161 controller, in free flight, 235-236 converging runway display aid and, 137 data link technology and, 105-106 definition, 25 electronic flight strips, 122 flight information processing systems, 124 flight management system effects, 114 in maintenance operations, 193 measurement, 114 in precision runway monitor/final monitor aid system, 142, 147 Programme for Harmonised Air Traffic Management Research in Eurocontrol, 170 reduction, 23-25 in traffic alert and collision avoidance system, 130-131 user request evaluation tool, 171 FIGURE 6.2 Center TRACON automation system (CTAS) traffic management advisor (TMA) display. Source: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. FIGURE 6.3 Center TRACON automation system (CTAS) traffic management advisor (TMA) large screen displays. Source: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. FIGURE 6.4 Center TRACON automation system (CTAS) descent advisor (DA) display. Source: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. FIGURE 6.5 Center TRACON automation system (CTAS) final approach spacing tool (FAST) display. Source: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. FIGURE 6.6 Center TRACON automation system (CTAS) conflict probe display. Source: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. FIGURE 6.8 User request evaluation tool (URET) at controller's workstation. Source: Photo courtesy of the MITRE Corporation. FIGURE 6.9 User request evaluation tool (URET) display. Source: Photo courtesy of the MITRE Corporation. FIGURE 6.10 User request evaluation tool (URET) list display. Source: Photo courtesy of the MITRE Corporation.