and exemplary controller performance, issues amenable to training interventions.
In a more automated air traffic control system, there is a strong possibility that team skills associated with coordination among controllers may degrade if the system functions with high reliability. Both formal training and regular practice in the use of team skills within the facility will be needed to maintain a safety buffer.
In summary, the same team skills (and formal training to gain, maintain, and reinforce them) that are needed in the current air traffic control system will be required under more automated systems. It is should be noted that Eurocontrol, the parent agency for air traffic control in the European Community, is implementing a program of team training called team resource management that makes use of the experience gained from crew resource management programs for flight crews (Barbarino, 1997; Masson and Paries, 1997). In addition, the concept of shared decision making between aircraft and air traffic control will require further training in distributed decision making and conflict resolution.