argue that working, under current circumstances, can lead to cynicism about work, misconduct, and tolerance of unethical practices in the workplace.

The actual job I'm doing is not going to help me, but being around people, dealing with people and their attitudes, that's going to help me.

High school student Youth panel for the committee

Although no relationship was found between employment status or hours of work and occupational values among students in St. Paul, Minnesota, both intrinsic and extrinsic work values were heightened among those who acquired job skills that were perceived as useful for the future (Mortimer et al., 1996). Perhaps young workers come to view the benefits of working as being within reach and, therefore, increasingly desirable, if they are given opportunities to learn and successfully adapt to the demands of work.

Parents of working youth believe that employment promotes a sense of responsibility, time-management skills, and positive work values (Aronson et al., 1996; Phillips and Sandstrom, 1990). Even though most young workers do not think that they will continue in the same kinds of jobs after they complete their schooling, they may learn behaviors that will prepare them for any future job. They may learn, for example, how to relate to people from diverse backgrounds, including customers, clients, coworkers, and supervisors; to take responsibility and be dependable; to follow employers' directions and rules; to keep track of their schedules (which, for many working youth, change frequently); and to get to work on time. Even so-called marginal jobs require individuals to mobilize some effort, to develop some degree of self-discipline, and to apply themselves to tasks (Snedeker, 1982).

Consistent with these potentially positive consequences for vocational development, a number of studies have reported that paid employment during high school is associated with positive work-related effects on employment after high school, as measured by the acquisition of work after leaving high school, the duration of employment (or unemployment), and income attainment (Freeman and



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