efficacy increased when their supervisors included them in discussions about work tasks and did not subject them to close supervision; girls' sense of efficacy increased when they were provided with early opportunities at work to be helpful to others (Call, 1996a; Call et al., 1995). Among males, job stressors (e.g., time pressure, overload) and early decision-making autonomy on the job heightened their distress, while the acquisition of useful skills diminished their depressed moods (Shanahan, 1992; Shanahan et al., 1991). Among females, work stress and responsibility for things outside their control were related to an increase in depressed moods (Shanahan et al., 1991) and a decrease in efficacy (Finch et al., 1991). There is further evidence from the Youth Development Study that the quality of work during high school has continued implications for personal outcomes (e.g., for modes of coping with problems at work, well-being, and depressed mood) 4 years following high school.

Moreover, the quality of the work experience may alter the effects of work hours. That is, when the work is of high quality, the potential negative effects of working long hours on personal development may be buffered. Thus, in a cross-sectional study of 10th-through 12th-grade urban white Canadians, hours worked was positively associated with self-esteem when autonomy and role clarity were high (Barling et al., 1995). Senior participants in the Monitoring the Future studies whose jobs offered them opportunities to use their skills and taught them new skills reported higher rates of satisfaction with life and hope for the future than did other participants (Schulenberg and Bachman, 1993). Those whose jobs were relevant to their future pursuits were less susceptible to difficulties related to longer work hours. In contrast, among those who saw little relationship between present and future jobs, an increase in work intensity was associated with decrements in health and well-being. Thus, work of low quality may interact with long hours to produce negative effects on personal development. For example, Shanahan (1992) reported that work stress and lack of supervision increased depressed moods among boys who worked more than the median number of hours in the 10th and 12th grades.

Problem Behaviors

It is in the set of activities that are generally referred to as "problem behaviors" that studies find the clearest indications of deleteri-



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement