A 15-year-old boy died in a bakery accident in Pennsylvania. He was killed while cleaning a horizontal dough mixing machine, although he was hired supposedly only to bag rolls. He had been employed in violation of the state's child labor laws. He didn't have working papers, he stayed on the job after permitted hours, and he was paid in cash, under the table (Meltzer, 1994).

A 16-year-old crew cook in a fast-food restaurant was pushing a container of hot grease from the kitchen to the outside for filtration. When he reached to open the door, his foot slipped, the lid fell off, and hot grease spilled over much of his body. He sustained second-and third-degree burns to his ankles, arms, chest, and face and was hospitalized for two weeks. Scarring occurred on all the burned areas (Heinzman et al., 1993:715).

A 12-year-old girl was killed when a car struck her while she was riding her bicycle delivering newspapers. The incident occurred just after 4 p.m. on an undivided two-lane road, where speeding is reportedly a problem. She was wearing a reflective white vest and white jacket, but not a bicycle helmet. Federal child labor laws, which limit hours and conditions of youth employment, do not apply to news carriers, who are considered independent contractors (Massachusetts Department of Public Health, May 1995).

A 14-year-old high school boy was killed when the tractor he was driving overturned on an icy county road and pinned him (Wisconsin State Journal, January 6, 1998:3B).

injuries incurred on the job (Layne et al., 1994). Furthermore, working long hours while attending school has been associated with other undesirable outcomes, such as an increased risk of alcohol, tobacco, or drug use (Bachman and Schulenberg, 1993; Mortimer et al., 1996; Resnick et al., 1997; Steinberg and Cauffman, 1995; Steinberg et al., 1993)

For many years the United States has judged it important to protect youth against bad work experiences by restricting both the types of work permitted and the hours that young people of different ages can work. By bringing together the best information about the

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