APPENDIX B Descriptions of Longitudinal Surveys

Dataset Name:

National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88)

Principal Investigator:

Aurora D'Amico, Jeffrey Owings

Investigator's Institution:

National Center for Education Statistics

Data Collection Organization:

National Opinion Research Center (NORC) of the University of Chicago

Purpose

The National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88) is the most recent in a series of longitudinal studies conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics at the U.S. Department of Education (also see the write-up on High School and Beyond). NELS:88 is designed to assess trends in secondary school education, focusing on the transition into and progress through high school, the transition into postsecondary school and the world of work, and family formation experiences. Data from this study can be used to examine educational issues such as tracking, cognitive growth, and dropping out of school.



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Protecting Youth at Work: Health, Safety, and Development of Working Children and Adolescents in the United States APPENDIX B Descriptions of Longitudinal Surveys Dataset Name: National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88) Principal Investigator: Aurora D'Amico, Jeffrey Owings Investigator's Institution: National Center for Education Statistics Data Collection Organization: National Opinion Research Center (NORC) of the University of Chicago Purpose The National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88) is the most recent in a series of longitudinal studies conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics at the U.S. Department of Education (also see the write-up on High School and Beyond). NELS:88 is designed to assess trends in secondary school education, focusing on the transition into and progress through high school, the transition into postsecondary school and the world of work, and family formation experiences. Data from this study can be used to examine educational issues such as tracking, cognitive growth, and dropping out of school.

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Protecting Youth at Work: Health, Safety, and Development of Working Children and Adolescents in the United States Design NELS:88 is a longitudinal study of a national probability sample of eighth graders. The base year student population excluded students with severe mental disabilities, students whose command of the English language was insufficient to understand survey materials, and students with physical or emotional problems that would limit their participation. The survey used a two-stage stratified, clustered sample design. The first stage, selection of schools, was accomplished by a complex design involving two sister pools of schools. The second stage included selection of about 24 to 26 students per school. At the second stage, 93 percent of 26,435 selected students agreed to participate. Hispanic and Asian students were oversampled. Data were collected via questionnaires from 24,599 students from 1,057 public and private schools from all 50 states and the District of Columbia in the base year. Eighth graders participated in group sessions at their schools where they completed student questionnaires and cognitive tests. School administrator data were collected from the senior school administrator (usually the principal or headmaster). For base year teacher data, each school was randomly assigned two of four subject areas of interest (English, math, science, social studies) and teachers were chosen who could provide data for each student respondent in these two subjects. Parent data were obtained through the mail. For the first (1990) follow-up, all students were surveyed in schools containing ten or more eligible NELS:88 respondents. Only a sub-sample of students was surveyed in schools with fewer than ten students. Because 90 percent of students changed schools between eighth and tenth grade, it was necessary to sub-sample schools in this way. The 1990 sample size was more than 19,000 students, and the 1992 sample size is about the same. The sample was freshened in 1990 and 1992 to give 1990 tenth graders and 1992 twelfth graders who were not in the eighth grade in 1988 some chance of selection into the NELS:88 follow-up. Such students included primarily those who had skipped or repeated a grade between 1988 and the follow-up year, and those who had moved to the U.S. after 1988. This freshening was conducted so that the first and second follow-up samples were representative of U.S. tenth graders in 1990 and U.S. twelfth graders in 1992.

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Protecting Youth at Work: Health, Safety, and Development of Working Children and Adolescents in the United States Periodicity Base year data were collected in 1988 and included questionnaires from students, school administrators, and parents; teacher ratings of students; and students' achievement test scores. The first follow-up of NELS:88 was conducted in 1990. At this time, data was collected by way of a student questionnaire (including a brief new student questionnaire for new students who were brought into the sample to preserve representativeness), a dropout questionnaire (of base-year respondents who had since left school), a student achievement test, a teacher questionnaire, and a school administrator questionnaire. A second follow-up was conducted in 1992. Data come from student (original and new) questionnaires, dropout questionnaires, student achievement test scores, school administrator and teacher questionnaires, and a parent questionnaire focusing on the financing of postsecondary education. In the second follow-up, only math and science teachers for each student were surveyed. Academic transcripts were collected for each student. The 3rd follow-up was conducted in 1994, when the students were approximately two years out of high school. Education, work, and family formation characteristics were included in this wave of the survey. The fourth and final follow-up will take place in 1997. Content, Policy, and Research Issues School administrator questionnaire: school, student and teaching staff characteristics, school policies and practices (e.g., admissions, discipline, grading and testing structure), school governance and climate, and school problems. Teacher questionnaire: impressions of the student, student's school behavior and academic performance, curriculum and classroom instructional practices, school climate and policies, and teacher background and activities. The teacher questionnaire for the second follow-up was only given to math and science teachers, who were asked to rate their own professional qualifications and preparation. Student questionnaire: family background and characteristics (including household composition, ethnicity, parental education, eco-

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Protecting Youth at Work: Health, Safety, and Development of Working Children and Adolescents in the United States nomic status), relationship with parents, unsupervised time at home, language use, opinions about self, attitudes, values, educational and career plans, jobs and chores, school life (including problems in school, discipline, peer relations, school climate), school work (homework, course enrollment, attitudes toward school, grade repetition, absenteeism), and extracurricular activities. First follow-up included similar content, as well as information about significant life events, family decision making, and substance abuse. The second follow-up contained similar material, as well as plans for the future, money and work, and an early graduate supplement which contained items about reasons for graduating early and current employment and enrollment. The third follow-up includes information on education, work, and family experiences. Dropout questionnaire: reasons for leaving school, school attitudes and experiences, current activities (employment and education), family background, future plans, self-opinion and attitudes, substance abuse, money and work, family composition and events, and language use. Parent questionnaire: marital status, household composition, employment, ethnicity, religion, child's school experiences and attendance, child's family life (activities, rules and regulations) and friends, opinion about and contact with child's school, child's disabilities, educational expectations for child, financial information, and educational expenditures. The second follow-up questionnaire included additional brief questions about neighborhood quality and some supplemental questions for parents new to NELS:88. Student achievement tests: reading, math, science, and history/ citizenship tests were administered in all waves. New student supplement: provides brief information about language, ethnicity, objects in the home, parents' employment, and grade repetition. School effectiveness study (SES): was added to the first followup to provide a probability sample of tenth-grade schools, with a sizable and representative within-school sample of students, through which longitudinal school-level analysis could be conducted. Two

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Protecting Youth at Work: Health, Safety, and Development of Working Children and Adolescents in the United States hundred and forty-eight schools participated in the first follow-up SES, and the second follow-up SES returned to 247 of those schools. Transcript files and course offerings: in the second follow-up, complete high school records were collected for 1) students attending sampled schools in the spring of 1992; 2) all dropouts, dropouts in alternative programs, and early graduates, regardless of school affiliations; and 3) triple ineligibles enrolled in the twelfth grade in the spring of 1991, regardless of affiliation. Triple ineligibles are 1988 eighth grades who were ineligible for the base year, first follow-up, and second follow-up surveys due to a mental or physical disability or language barrier. The course offering component provides curriculum data from second follow-up school effectiveness study schools. Because questionnaires were not identical at each wave, all of the information described above and indicated in the checklist is not available for every wave. The longitudinal design of this study permits the examination of change in young people's lives and the role of schools in promoting growth and positive life outcomes. For example, NELS:88 data can be used to investigate the transition from middle school to secondary school, the students' academic growth over time, the features of effective schools, the process of dropping out of school as it occurs from eighth grade on, the role of the school in helping disadvantaged students, the school experiences and academic performance of language minority students, and factors associated with attracting students to the study of mathematics and science. Contact Aurora D'Amico National Center for Education Statistics 555 New Jersey Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20208 (202) 219-1365 Aurora_D'Amico@ed.gov Source: National Research Council Workshop on Longitudinal Research on Children, September 12–13, 1997, Washington, D.C.

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Protecting Youth at Work: Health, Safety, and Development of Working Children and Adolescents in the United States Dataset Name: National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) Principal Investigator: J. Richard Udry Investigator's Institution: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Data Collection Organization: National waOpinion Research Center (NORC) of the University of Chicago Purpose The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescents was designed to assess the health status of adolescents and explore causes of their health-related behaviors, focusing on multiple contexts or environments (both social and physical) in which they live. The study was predicated on the idea that adolescents' health is a result of social environment, health-related behaviors, and individual strengths and weaknesses. Each of these areas are explored in the study. Design Add Health is a longitudinal study of adolescents in grades 7 through 12. The study used a school-based clustered sampling design. Using a stratified, random sample of all high schools (defined as schools that included 11th grade and had at least 30 students) in the United States, 80 high schools were selected. A feeder school—a school that sent graduates to the high school and that included a 7th grade—was also recruited in each community. Because some high schools spanned grades 7 to 12, and therefore, acted as their own feeder schools, the core study had a total sample of 134 schools. A self-administered questionnaire was filled out by all students present on the day of administration at each of the 134 schools during the 1994–1995 school year. Over 90,000 adolescents completed an in-school questionnaire. A nationally-representative core sample of 12,105 adolescents was selected from the students in the selected schools for in-home interviews. Special oversamples of blacks, Chinese, Cubans, Puerto Ricans, disabled, and siblings also received in-home interviews. In addition, all students in two large schools and 14 small schools were interviewed at home. A total of 21,000 in-home interviews were

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Protecting Youth at Work: Health, Safety, and Development of Working Children and Adolescents in the United States completed in the 1994–1995 school year. Data were also collected from school administrators and parents. A second wave of follow-up in-home interviews was conducted in the spring of 1996. Periodicity The baseline in-school questionnaires and school administrator questionnaires were completed between September 1994 and April 1995. The first wave of in-home interviews and the parent questionnaires were completed between April and December 1995. A second wave of school administrator questionnaires were completed between May and June 1996. The second wave of in-home interviews took place between April and August 1996. Content, Policy, and Research Issues In-school questionnaire: social and demographic characteristics of respondents, education and occupation of parents, household structure, risk behaviors, expectations for the future, self-esteem, health status, friendships, school-year extracurricular activities. In-home interview: health status, health facility utilization, nutrition, peer networks, decision-making processes, family composition and dynamics, educational aspirations and expectations, employment experience, the ordering of events in the formation of romantic partnerships, sexual partnerships, substance use, and criminal activities. An abridged version of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test was also administered. School administrator questionnaire: school policies and procedures, teacher characteristics, health service provision or referral, student body characteristics, dress codes, and security procedures. Parent questionnaire: inheritable health conditions; marriages and marriage-like relationships; neighborhood characteristic;, involvement in volunteer, civic, or school activities; health-affecting behaviors; education and employment; household income and economic assistance; parent-adolescent communication and interaction;

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Protecting Youth at Work: Health, Safety, and Development of Working Children and Adolescents in the United States and parent's familiarity with adolescent's friends and friends' parents. Neighborhood/Community context: demographic and household characteristics; labor force participation and unemployment; income and poverty; social integration/disintegration; availability and utilization of health services; social programs and policies; and crime. This information was gathered from a variety of sources, such as U.S. Census, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Center for Health Statistics, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the National Council of Churches, and other published data bases. Contact J. Richard Udry Kenan Professor of Maternal and Child Health and Sociology Carolina Population Center University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, NC 97516-3997 udry@unc.edu or Jo Jones Project Manager Carolina Population Center University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill jo_jones@unc.edu Research collaborators include: Karl E. Bauman, Health Behavior and Health Education, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill Peter S. Bearman, Sociology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill John O.G. Billy, Battelle, Seattle Robert W. Blum, Pediatrics, University of Minnesota William R. Grady, Battelle, Seattle Kathleen Mullen Harris, Sociology, University of North

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Protecting Youth at Work: Health, Safety, and Development of Working Children and Adolescents in the United States Carolina, Chapel Hill James J. Jaccard, Psychology, State University of New York at Albany Michael D. Resnick, Public Health and Pediatrics, University of Minnesota David C. Rowe, Family Studies, University of Arizona Source: Bearman, P.S., J. Jones, and J.R. Udry. 1997. Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health: Research Design. Available at http://www.cpc.unc.edu/projects/addhealth/design.html; also available at http://www.cpc.unc.edu/projects/addhealth/addhealth_home.html.

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Protecting Youth at Work: Health, Safety, and Development of Working Children and Adolescents in the United States Dataset Name: National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 (NLSY) Sponsoring Organization: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor Program Director: Michael Horrigan Data Collection Organization: National Opinion Research Center (NORC) of the University of Chicago Purpose To study in detail the life course experience of a large, nationally-representative sample of young Americans, and to allow analysis of the differences in life course experiences of such groups as women, Hispanics, blacks, and the economically disadvantaged. Design The NLSY has three subsamples: a cross-sectional sample of 6,111 youth designed to be representative of the noninstitutionalized civilian segment of young people living in the United States in 1979 and born between January 1, 1957 and December 31, 1964; a supplemental sample of 5,295 youth designed to oversample Hispanic, black, and economically disadvantaged youth living in the United States in 1979 and born between January 1, 1957 and December 31, 1964; and a sample of 1,280 youth designed to represent the population born between January 1, 1957 and December 31, 1961 and who were enlisted in the military as of September 30, 1978. Personally-administered interviews were conducted annually from 1979 through 1986. Due to budget constraints in 1987, a more limited telephone interview was conducted that year. Personal interviews resumed in 1988. In 1993, paper and pencil interview instruments were replaced with computer-assisted interviewing. Periodicity Annually. The first interviews were conducted in 1979.

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Protecting Youth at Work: Health, Safety, and Development of Working Children and Adolescents in the United States Content, Policy, and Research Issues Initial survey (1979): family background, knowledge of the world of work, a retrospective evaluation of labor market experience, the influence of significant others, and an abbreviated Rotter locus of control scale. Subsequent surveys: job search methods, migration, attitudes towards work, educational/occupational aspirations and expectations, school discipline, self-esteem, child care, pre-and post-natal health behaviors, drug and alcohol use, delinquency, time use, AIDS knowledge, childhood residence, and neighborhood problems. Respondents have also been the subjects for a number of special surveys. Major data elements available in NLSY: demographic and family background characteristics, household composition, educational status and attainment, high school experiences, aptitude and intelligence scores, nongovernment vocational/technical training, government training and jobs, military experience, labor market activity and transitions, detailed work histories, marital history, fertility, child care, income and assets, health, alcohol and substance use, illegal activities, attitudes and aspirations, geographic information, detailed geocode data files, and geographic proximity/mobility matches. Contact Michael W. Horrigan National Longitudinal Surveys Suite 4945 2 Massachusetts Avenue NE Washington, DC 20212-0011 Source: NLSY79 Overview. Available at http://stats.bls.gov/nlsyouth.html.

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Protecting Youth at Work: Health, Safety, and Development of Working Children and Adolescents in the United States Dataset Name: National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 Sponsoring Organization: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor Data Collection Organization: National Opinion Research Center Program Director: Michael Horrigan Purpose To provide information about young people making the transition into the labor market and into adulthood and career and family formation. The data will improve understanding of how different youths negotiate the transition and help researchers identify the antecedents and causes for youths who experience difficulties making the transition from school to work. Design A representative national sample of approximately 10,000 youth ages 12–16 years old on December 31, 1996. Black and Hispanic persons will be oversampled to permit racial and ethnic comparisons. Periodicity Annually. First round of interviews from February to September, 1997. Content, Policy and Research Issues Data are collected on the cognitive, social, and emotional development of young people. In the initial survey both a parent and a youth interview are administered. Questions are asked about family background, marital and employment history, health, income and assets. Both interviews have self-administered portions providing data on issues such as smoking, drinking, dating, religious beliefs, depression, and expectations. Information will also be obtained from school administrators and from school transcripts. A math test

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Protecting Youth at Work: Health, Safety, and Development of Working Children and Adolescents in the United States will be administered to ninth graders in the survey. The Armed Services Vocational and Aptitude Battery will be used to assess the respondents aptitude, achievement and career interests. Contact Michael W. Horrigan National Longitudinal Surveys Suite 4945 2 Massachusetts Ave. N.E. Washington, DC 20212-0011 Source: National Research Council Workshop on Longitudinal Research on Children, September 12–13, 1997, Washington, D.C.

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Protecting Youth at Work: Health, Safety, and Development of Working Children and Adolescents in the United States Dataset Name: Monitoring the Future: A Continuing Study of the Lifestyles and Values of Youth Principal Investigator: Jerald G. Bachman, John Schulenberg Investigator's Institution: Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan Data Collection Organization: Survey Research Center, Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan Purpose To assess the changing lifestyles, values, and preferences of youth in the United States on a continuing basis. Study results are used to monitor trends in substance use and abuse, monitor progress toward Goal 7 (safe, disciplined, and alcohol-and drug-free schools) of the Goals 2000 National Education Goals, and to monitor progress toward national health goals. Design A multi-stage random sampling procedure is used to select a representative nationwide sample of 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students. Data are collected in the spring of each year in approximately 420 public and private high schools and middle schools to provide a representative cross-section of students in the coterminous United States at each grade level. Each year current 8th, 10th, and 12th graders are presented with the same set of questions to see how answers change over time. A sample from each 12th grade class has been followed biannually since 1976 using a mail questionnaire. The design permits examination of four kinds of change: changes in particular years reflected across all age groups; developmental changes that show up consistently from year to year; consistent differences among class cohorts over time; and changes linked to environment or role transitions.

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Protecting Youth at Work: Health, Safety, and Development of Working Children and Adolescents in the United States Periodicity Annually. Beginning in 1975, approximately 16,000 high school seniors were surveyed each year. In 1991, 8th and 10th grade students were added to the sample for annual surveys. Subsamples of seniors from previously participating classes receive follow-up questionnaires by mail biannually. Content, Policy, and Research Issues Drug and alcohol use, attitudes towards drugs, availability of drugs, cigarette use, attitudes towards cigarettes, availability of cigarettes, demographic information, grades, hours of work per week, amount of pay for work, parents' education, college plans, high school curriculum, sleep, breakfast eating, exercise, dating, delinquency, life satisfaction, truancy, interpersonal aggression, victimization, and self-esteem. Contact Monitoring the Future Institute for Social Research The University of Michigan P.O. Box 1248 Ann Arbor, MI 48106 Source: The Monitoring the Future Study. Available at http://www.isr.umich.edu/src/mtf/purpose.html.

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Protecting Youth at Work: Health, Safety, and Development of Working Children and Adolescents in the United States Dataset Name: Panel Survey of Income Dynamics Principal Investigator: Sandra L. Hofferth, Frank P. Stafford Investigator's Institution: University of Michigan Data Collection Organization: Survey Research Center, Institute of Social Research, The University of Michigan Sponsoring Organizations: National Science Foundation; Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, Department of Health and Human Services; Department of Labor; the National Institute on Aging; and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Purpose The study, begun in 1968, gathers information on the dynamic aspects of economic and demographic behavior of a representative sample of U.S. individuals (men, women, and children) and the family units in which they reside. Design The study's original 5,000 households constitute a national probability sample of U.S. households as of 1967. In 1990, a representative national sample of 2,000 Latino households, differentially sampled to provide adequate numbers of Puerto Rican, Mexican-American, and Cuban American households, was added to the sample. All members of these original households are tracked, including those who leave to form separate family units. Children born to members of an original-sample member are classified as sample members and are eligible for tracking as separate family units when they set up their own households. Ex-spouses and other adult sample members who move out of a PSID family unit are also tracked to their new family unit. This procedure replicates the population's family-building activity and produces a dynamic sample of families

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Protecting Youth at Work: Health, Safety, and Development of Working Children and Adolescents in the United States each year. This design is responsible for the increase in the number of family units studied from 7,000 in 1990 to almost 8,700 in 1995. Information is gathered about all persons residing in the family unit, but in most waves there is only one respondent per family unit. As of 1995, information had been collected about more than 50,000 individuals spanning as much as 28 years of their lives. Periodicity Annually. Content, Policy, and Research Issues The general design and content of the study has remained largely unchanged, with a central focus on economics and demographic events. The major core topics covered are income sources and amounts, poverty status, public assistance, other financial matters, family structure and demographic measures (e.g., marital status, births and adoptions, children forming households), labor market participation, housework time, housing, geographic mobility, socioeconomic background, and general health. Beginning in 1985, comprehensive retrospective fertility and marriage histories of individuals in the households have been assembled. Supplemental topics have been investigated in depth in various years. Supplemental topics include education, military combat experience, health, kinship networks, and wealth. Contact PSID Staff Institute of Social Research University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 48106 PSID_Staff@umich.edu Source: PSID homepage. Available at http://www.isr.umich.edu/src/psid/.

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Protecting Youth at Work: Health, Safety, and Development of Working Children and Adolescents in the United States Dataset Name: National Survey of Families and Households Sponsoring Organization: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Program Director: V. Jeffrey Evans, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Data Collection Organization:   Purpose To study family processes and transitions, viewing family relationships in the context of other adult roles and opportunities. Design The original 1987–88 sample included 13,000 households. Double samples were taken from black and Hispanic households, single-parent families, cohabiting and newly married couples, and households with stepchildren. In person interviews were conducted with a randomly chosen adult over age 18. Self-administered surveys were given to the respondent and the respondent's spouse or partner. In the 1993–94 follow-up survey, brief interviews were also completed with children who age 5 or older in the initial survey. Selected children and parents who had divorced or left the original family were followed and surveyed. Periodicity First wave of interviews in 1987 to 1988. Follow-up interviews in 1993 to 1994. No future follow-ups are currently planned, however the families are being tracked to allow for further study.

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Protecting Youth at Work: Health, Safety, and Development of Working Children and Adolescents in the United States Content, Policy, and Research Issues Childhood family experience, cohabitation and marital histories, current living arrangements, husband-wife relationships, and parent-child relationships. Contact V. Jeffrey Evans Demographic and Behavioral Sciences Branch National Institute of Child Health and Human Development 6100 Executive Boulevard Bethesda, MD 20892-7510 Sources: National Research Council, 1995, Integrating Federal Statistics on Children: Report of a Workshop. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Demographic and Behavioral Sciences Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Behavior, 1995, Report to the NACHHD Council , January 1995. Available at http://www.nih.gov/nichd/html/report/Jan95.htm.

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Protecting Youth at Work: Health, Safety, and Development of Working Children and Adolescents in the United States Dataset Name: New Immigrant Pilot Survey (NIPS) Sponsoring Organization: National Institutes of Health Immigration and Naturalization Service National Science Foundation Data Collection Organization: National Institutes of Health U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service Principal Investigator(s): Guillermina Jasso, New York University Douglas S. Massey, University of Pennsylvania Mark R. Rosenzweig, University of Pennsylvania James P. Smith, Rand Corporation Purpose The NIS Pilot Study has three aims: (1) to assess the cost-effectiveness of alternative methods for locating and maximizing the initial response rates of sampled immigrants; (2) to explore the costs, feasibility, and effectiveness of alternative methods of tracking over time sampled immigrants after their initial contacts that will permit a longitudinal survey of a highly mobile population with minimal attrition; and (3) to obtain immediately useful information from the NIS pilot that would both aid in the design of survey instruments for the full survey and that would provide new and important information on recently-admitted immigrants. Design and Periodicity The NIS Pilot Study consists of a baseline survey, a three-month follow-up of half of the original sample, a six-month follow-up of all original sample members, and a one-year follow-up, also of all original sample members. The sampling frame for the NIS Pilot Study consists of all persons who were admitted to legal permanent residence during the months of July and August of 1996. Because children are quite

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Protecting Youth at Work: Health, Safety, and Development of Working Children and Adolescents in the United States numerous among immigrants and because employment-based immigrants, in whom there is great interest, are a relatively small category, a stratified random sample was drawn, undersampling children and oversampling the employment-based. Content There are two types of data that are pertinent. The first is data on the usual sociodemographic and economic characteristics and activities, so that immigrants and their children can be compared with native-born persons. The second is data on characteristics and behavior unique to immigrants. The first type of data include marital and employment histories, and the second type include migration and language-acquisition histories. Contact Guillermina Jasso Department of Sociology New York University Mail Code 0831 269 Mercer Street, #412 New York, NY 10003 Source: National Research Council Workshop on Longitudinal Research on Children, September 12–13, 1997, Washington, D.C.

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