Index

A

Accidents, see Injuries

Administrative Procedures Act, 168

Adolescents, 3, 21, 110-140

agricultural sector, 13, 143-145, 149, 156, 158, 229

defined, 19

demonstration projects, 189-190, 222

developmental processes, 2, 3, 4-5, 6, 88-89, 91-97, 108, 110, 139-140, 213, 226, 236

disabled, 51, 73-74

educational attainment and work, 3, 96-97, 115-120, 124

post-secondary education, 3, 51, 116-124(passim), 138, 140, 188

hours of work, 11, 39-43, 95-97, 111, 112, 114, 115, 123-134 (passim), 162, 166, 167, 226

sleep needs and, 11, 95-97, 130

illegal employment, 8, 48-49, 52, 180-183, 216-217, 219, 233-234

criminal enterprises, 20, 49, 138

fatalities, 88, 107-108

fines, 181, 182, 183, 232-233

immigrants, 52

poverty and, 137-138

immigrants, 52

injuries, 53-54, 58-71, 73-76, 87-88, 98-99, 102-103

fatal, 4, 77-83, 101, 106

longitudinal studies, 15, 32, 34-39, 113-114, 118, 132, 235, 269-289;

see also specific studies

motivation, 25, 119, 134-135

occupational health training, 4-5, 9-10, 86, 87-88, 101-102, 184-192, 221-223

personal development, see Psychosocial factors

physical and biological development of, 19, 88, 91-97, 110

sleep and, 11, 95-97, 130, 140, 156

poor, 134-138

problem behavior, 4, 11, 114, 131-134, 139-140, 226

runaway or homeless, 48



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Protecting Youth at Work: Health, Safety, and Development of Working Children and Adolescents in the United States Index A Accidents, see Injuries Administrative Procedures Act, 168 Adolescents, 3, 21, 110-140 agricultural sector, 13, 143-145, 149, 156, 158, 229 defined, 19 demonstration projects, 189-190, 222 developmental processes, 2, 3, 4-5, 6, 88-89, 91-97, 108, 110, 139-140, 213, 226, 236 disabled, 51, 73-74 educational attainment and work, 3, 96-97, 115-120, 124 post-secondary education, 3, 51, 116-124(passim), 138, 140, 188 hours of work, 11, 39-43, 95-97, 111, 112, 114, 115, 123-134 (passim), 162, 166, 167, 226 sleep needs and, 11, 95-97, 130 illegal employment, 8, 48-49, 52, 180-183, 216-217, 219, 233-234 criminal enterprises, 20, 49, 138 fatalities, 88, 107-108 fines, 181, 182, 183, 232-233 immigrants, 52 poverty and, 137-138 immigrants, 52 injuries, 53-54, 58-71, 73-76, 87-88, 98-99, 102-103 fatal, 4, 77-83, 101, 106 longitudinal studies, 15, 32, 34-39, 113-114, 118, 132, 235, 269-289; see also specific studies motivation, 25, 119, 134-135 occupational health training, 4-5, 9-10, 86, 87-88, 101-102, 184-192, 221-223 personal development, see Psychosocial factors physical and biological development of, 19, 88, 91-97, 110 sleep and, 11, 95-97, 130, 140, 156 poor, 134-138 problem behavior, 4, 11, 114, 131-134, 139-140, 226 runaway or homeless, 48

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Protecting Youth at Work: Health, Safety, and Development of Working Children and Adolescents in the United States school-to-work programs, 10, 30, 119-120, 163, 186-189, 190, 217 school-to-work relationship; see School-to-work relationship sleep needs, 11, 95-97, 130, 140, 156 urban/rural differences, 38, 69, 127-128, 131, 137-138 vocational attainment and work, 3, 17, 51, 120, 121-125, 138, 139, 212, 226 workers' compensation, 57, 58, 60-67, 73-74 work force estimates, 2, 3, 17, 31-32, 33-35, 41-45, 47 agriculture, 143-144 sectoral breakdowns, 3, 4, 31-32, 33-35, 41-48 (passim) Adults effects of childhood work on, 111-112 employment, 3, 17, 51, 120, 121-125, 138, 139, 212, 226 health, 12, 83 injuries, 4, 88 occupational health training, 88, 185 see also Parents African Americans, 33, 49, 123, 135, 150 Age factors, 220 agricultural sector, 13, 144-145, 149, 156, 229 minimum working age, 157, 158, 164, 167 disabled, 51 employment of young children, 8 federal law, 5, 12, 14, 21 hazardous work, 13, 71, 169-171, 185, 229 historical perspective, 20-21 hours of work 5, 11, 12, 18, 21, 38-40, 45, 69-71, 105, 115, 157-158, 162, 164-167 injuries, 70-71, 74, 77, 81, 83, 90-91, 99, 101, 104, 108 international perspective, 28 likelihood of employment and, 33 minority groups, 49 sleep needs, 95-96 work site segregation, 125 see also Adolescents; Minimum working age; Young children Agricultural sector, 3, 13-14, 30, 141-161 adolescents, 13, 143-145, 149, 156, 158, 229 age factors, 13, 144-145, 149, 156, 229 minimum working age, 157, 158, 164, 167 attitudes of workers, 146 CPS, 144 economic factors, general, 142, 151 family farms, 2, 13-14, 20, 141-152, 158, 159, 160, 164, 165, 167, 170, 171 defined, 143 Fair Labor Standards Act, 152, 157, 158, 160, 164, 165, 167, 178, 218 fatalities, 3, 4, 152-153 gender factors, 146-147, 150, 152, 153 hazardous work, 13, 14, 145, 149, 151, 157-159, 163-164, 168, 170, 171, 174-175, 228-229, 230-231 hazardous orders, 13, 157, 158-160, 167-168, 170, 171, 229 machinery, 142, 148, 149, 157-159, 160, 170 health hazards surveillance, 83-84 historical perspectives, 142-143, 146-148, 149-150 immigrants, 146, 148, 150 hours of work, 13, 155-156, 158, 160-161, 164, 165, 227-228 illegal employment, 181 injuries, 3, 4, 54-55, 58-63, 66-69, 78-81, 104, 106, 107, 142, 143, 145, 149, 152-153, 160, 190-191

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Protecting Youth at Work: Health, Safety, and Development of Working Children and Adolescents in the United States job skills, 140, 151, 156 migrant workers, 8, 84 National Agricultural Workers Survey, 144, 150-151, 156 NIOSH role, 153, 190, 232 noise, 84 occupational diseases, 143, 145, 153-154, 160-161 Occupational Safety and Health Act, 141, 157, 159, 160, 174, 175 OSHA, 13-14, 141, 157, 159, 230-231, 232 physical labor, 155-156, 236 poverty, 151 regional factors, 148, 149, 150 regulatory issues, 13-14, 141-142, 157-160, 163, 164, 174-175, 181, 227-228, 230-231 legal exceptions to regulation, 5, 13-14, 141-142, 157, 164, 165, 218, 230-231 research methodology, 144-145, 152, 155 safety and health education, 190-191 sanitation, 155, 156, 159 small farms, 13-14, 148, 157, 159, 174, 230; see also ''family farms" supra state government role, 141, 163, 174-175 surveillance, 14, 28, 144-145, 152, 155 migrant farm workers, 8, 216, 217, 219 pesticides, 14, 28, 155 toxic chemicals, 84, 154, 159, 170, 174, 176, 231-232; see also Pesticides vocational education, 60, 84, 190-191 wages, 151-152, 158, 160 workers' compensation, 234 work force estimates, 3, 32, 43, 46, 47, 150, 151 young children, 144-145, 152, 153-154, 157, 158, 159 Alabama, 172, 194-195 Alaska, 75, 194-195 Alcohol use and abuse, 126 gender factors, 134 hours of work and, 18, 97, 133 American Academy of Pediatrics, 185 American Public Health Association, 185 Americans with Disabilities Act, 50 Amputations, 58-61, 67-68, 90-91 Annual Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses, 56, 57, 98, 100, 215, 216 Apprenticeships, 10, 21, 27, 120, 169, 187,188, 224 Arkansas, 194-195 Asphyxiation, 78, 80, 107 Attitudes adolescents, 25, 119, 121, 134-135, 136 agricultural workers, 146 demonstration projects, 189 parents, 19, 25-26, 118, 122, 126-127 disabled children, 51 family farmers, 146 pseudo-maturity, 134 responsibility, sense of, 3, 17, 19, 26, 121-122, 128-129, 130, 212 self-esteem, 1, 3, 17, 128-131, 138, 212, 272, 275 supervisors, 127 worker attitudes, 121, 136 see also Life skills; Motivation for employment Austria, 27 Automobiles, see Motor vehicles B Bureau of Census, 218 see also Current Population Survey Bureau of Justice Statistics, 219

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Protecting Youth at Work: Health, Safety, and Development of Working Children and Adolescents in the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, 7, 8, 218, 219 illegal employment, 216-217 injuries, 56, 57, 79, 98, 100, 103-104, 108-109, 215, 216 work force estimates, 2, 17, 31, 33-34, 219 see also Current Population Survey Burns, 59, 61, 63, 65, 67, 69, 73, 76, 102 C California, 87, 114, 125, 134, 148, 150, 155, 172, 189-190, 194-195 Canada, 86, 121, 131 Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Applied Technology Education Act, 188, 223 Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries, 79, 103-104, 106, 108-109, 153, 216-217 Chemicals, see Toxic substances Children, see Adolescents; Young children Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969, 24, 183 Cognitive abilities, 4, 6, 53, 94-95, 110, 137, 213 Colorado, 194-195 Connecticut, 58-59, 76, 196-197 Construction sector, 47, 229 fatalities, 4, 78-81, 106 illegal employment, 181 injuries, 4, 58-67, 76 Consumer Product Safety Commission, see National Electronic Injury Surveillance System Cost and cost-effectiveness employing certain groups, cost of, 167, 227 injuries, 54-55, 74, 178-179 pesticide use, 175 regulatory compliance, 183 Counting Injuries and Illnesses in the Workplace, 97 CPS, see Current Population Survey Crime, 20, 49, 138 assaults on workers, 171 child labor law violators, general, 14-15 drug dealing and prostitution, 20, 49, 138 homicides, 4, 78, 82, 104-107 (passim) see also Delinquency; Deviance; Illegal employment Cross-sectional studies, general, 32, 114, 119, 131-133 (passim) Current Population Survey agricultural sector, 144 methodology, 32-34, 35, 36-37, 38, 218, 219 poor persons, 135 D Data collection, see Surveillance systems and data Dating, 128 Deaths, see Fatalities Delaware, 196-197 Delinquency, 132-134 children employed in criminal activities, 20, 48-49, 137-138 gender factors, 132-133, 134 Demographic factors, general agricultural sector, 143 injuries, surveillance, 101, 104 rural areas, 127-128, 138 urban areas, 38, 69, 127-128, 131, 137-138 see also Age factors; Current Population Survey; Gender factors; Minority groups; Socioeconomic status Demonstration projects, 189-190, 222 Denmark, 27 Department of Agriculture, 143 Department of Education, 10, 189 Department of Health and Human Services, 14, 57, 177

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Protecting Youth at Work: Health, Safety, and Development of Working Children and Adolescents in the United States Department of Justice, 48-49 Department of Labor, 163-164, 172, 222, 228 Annual Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses, 56, 57, 98, 100, 215, 216 commendable employers, 10-11, 223-225 fines, 232-233 hours of work, 11, 162, 163, 227 SCAN goals, 137 work force estimates, 2, 17, 31 work permits, 235 see also Bureau of Labor Statistics; Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938; Hazardous orders; School-to-Work Opportunities Act of 1994; Work permits and registration Department of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education and Related Agencies Appropriations Act of 1998, 142-143 Depression, 131 Developmental processes, 2, 3, 4-5, 6, 88-89, 91-97, 108, 139-140, 213, 226, 236 poor persons, 135 role of work, 110-140 see also Physical development; Psychosocial factors Deviance, 114, 131-134 hours of work and, 4, 11, 131-134, 139-140, 226 see also Alcohol use and abuse; Crime; Substance abuse Disabled persons, 3, 50-51, 123 adolescents, 51, 73-74 CPS, 34 hearing impairment, 60-61, 84 injuries resulting in, 57, 74 amputations, 58-61, 67-68, 90-91 surveillance systems, 7, 8, 219 see also Workers' compensation Disadvantaged persons, see Minority groups; Poverty Diseases and disorders, see Disabled persons; Fatalities; Injuries; Occupational diseases Drinking, see Alcohol use and abuse Dropouts, 38-39, 116, 156, 166-167, 227, 272 Drug abuse, see Alcohol use and abuse; Substance abuse Drug Use Forecasting Program, 48-49 E Economic factors, general agricultural sector, 142, 151 historical perspectives, 21 motivation for work, 3, 119, 121, 134-135 see also Cost and cost-effectiveness; Funding; Socioeconomic status; Unemployment Education and training, 5, 6, 220-225, 231 child labor laws, public education, 185, 191-192, 220-221 demonstration projects, 189-190, 222 health care providers, 107, 154, 217 High School and Beyond, 114, 115, 116, 138 historical perspectives, 21 homework, 119, 130 inspectors, 15, 107, 233-234 National Center for Education Statistics, 8, 219 occupational health, 4-5, 9-10, 86, 87-88, 101-102, 184-192, 221-223 adults, 88, 185 agricultural sector, 190-191 toxic substances, 4, 28, 99, 155, 236 see also School-to-work relationship; Vocational education; Work skills Educational attainment, 1, 2, 19 adolescents, 3, 96-97, 115-120, 124

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Protecting Youth at Work: Health, Safety, and Development of Working Children and Adolescents in the United States dropouts, 38-39, 116, 156, 166-167, 227, 272 hours of work, impact on academic performance, 3, 96-97, 115-120, 123, 124, 138, 139, 140, 226 parent's, 138 post-secondary education, 3, 51, 116-124 (passim), 140, 188 workers' compensation for lost, 234 Educational Research Information Clearinghouse, 29 Electrocution, 4, 79, 80, 105-107 (passim), 174 Emergency care, 4, 17-18 surveillance data, 53-54, 57, 60-61, 62, 68-69, 70, 73, 76, 100-101, 102 Endocrine system, 94 Enforcement, see Fines; Inspectors and inspections England, 23 Environmental Protection Agency, 14, 155, 175, 177, 230, 231 Equipment, see Machinery Ergonomic factors, 12, 15, 84, 93-94, 228, 236 Exercise, 11, 226 Executive Order 13045, see Task Force on Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks to Children F Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, 5, 12, 21 agricultural sector, 152, 157, 158, 160, 164, 165, 167, 178, 218 child labor defined, 19 enforcement, 180-182, 184 hazardous work 84, 162, 163-167, 176 hours of work, 21, 162, 163-167, 229 small businesses, 152 work permits, 172, 234 see also Hazardous orders Falls, accidents, 59, 61, 65, 73, 76, 78, 106, 107, 153, 158, 184 Family businesses, 20, 29, 102, 104, 167, 171 see also Family farms Family factors, 140, 272, 275 historical perspectives, 21 hours of work and time spent together, 4, 11, 125-126, 226 motivation for work, 25, 121, 135 see also Parents Family farms, 2, 13-14, 20, 141-152, 158, 159, 160, 164, 165, 167, 170, 171 defined, 143 Fast-foot outlets, see Restaurants and fast-foot outlets Fatalities, 4, 77-83 agricultural sector, 3, 4, 152-153 asphyxiation, 78, 80, 107 causes of, 4, 78-80, 82, 105-106 construction sector, 4, 78-81, 106 electrocution, 4, 79, 80, 105-107 (passim), 174 estimates of, 4, 17, 53, 77-83, 104, 105 homicides, 4, 78, 82, 104-107 (passim) illegal employment and, 88, 107-108 mines, 183-184 OSHA, 88, 107-108 surveillance data sources, 103-109 Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries, 79, 103-104, 106, 108-109, 153, 216-217 Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation Program, 103, 106-107, 216 National Traumatic Occupational Fatality Surveillance System, 78, 103, 104, 105-106, 216 workers' compensation, 179 Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation Program, 103, 106-107, 216 Federal Employment Compensation Act, 178

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Protecting Youth at Work: Health, Safety, and Development of Working Children and Adolescents in the United States Federal government, 5, 12, 21, 162, 217, 222 demonstration projects, 189-190, 222 occupational health training, 10, 186-191, 221-222 preventive interventions, task force, 14, 176-177 surveillance systems, 8, 103-108, 214-220 see also Legislation; Regulatory issues; specific departments and agencies Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, 163, 174, 175-176 Fines, 181, 182, 183, 232-233 Florida, 148, 196-197 FLSA, see Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938; Hazardous orders Food Quality Protection Act of 1996, 176, 231 Foreign countries, see International perspectives; specific countries Fractures, 59-69 (passim), 93 Funding, 9 agricultural workers, education, 190-191 commendable workplace criteria, 224-225 school-to-work programs, 187, 222 G Gender factors, 33, 43, 50 agricultural sector, 146-147, 150, 152, 153 alcohol use, 134 delinquency, 132-133, 134 hazardous work, 71 hours of work, 115, 116-117, 132-133 injuries, 70, 71, 81, 82 parent-offspring relationship, 126 self-esteem, 130-131 Georgia, 196-197 Germany, 23, 27, 187 Government role, see Federal government; Legislation; Local government; State government Grocery stores injuries, 53, 54-55, 59-67 (passim), 73, 74, 85, 100 work force estimates, 3, 46 Growth, see Musculoskeletal development H Hawaii, 75, 196-197 Hazardous orders, 12, 83, 88, 163-164, 168-171, 228 agricultural sector, 13, 157, 158-160, 167-168, 170, 171, 229 Hazardous substances, see Toxic substances Hazardous work, 4, 6, 12, 28, 47, 53, 83-86, 213, 228-229, 231-232 age factors, 13, 71, 169-171, 185, 229 agricultural sector, 13, 14, 145, 149, 151, 157-159, 163-164, 168, 170, 171, 174-175, 228-229, 230-231 Fair Labor Standards Act, 162, 163-167, 176 federal law, general, 5, 12, 166, 167; see also Legislation gender factors, 71 International Labour Organization, 26 machinery, 12, 169-171, 228 Occupational Safety and Health Act, 24, 108, 173, 174, 175, 182-183 poor and minority children, 3, 47, 49, 135, 140 surveillance systems, 9, 83-85, 215-216 see also Fatalities; Injuries; Machinery; Occupational diseases; Toxic substances

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Protecting Youth at Work: Health, Safety, and Development of Working Children and Adolescents in the United States Healthy People 2000, 69 Hearing impairment, 60-61, 84 Heat-related illness, 13, 156, 230 see also Burns High School and Beyond, 114, 115, 116, 138 High Schools That Work, 188 Hispanics, 49, 123, 135, 148, 150 Historical perspectives, 20-22 age factors, 20-21 agricultural sector, 142-143, 146-148, 149-150 immigrants, 146, 148, 150 injuries, 19, 23-24 occupational diseases, 23-24 school-to-work relationship, 21-23 state government role, 23-24 vocational education, 22-23 Homeless persons, 48 Homework, 119, 130 Homicides, 4, 78, 82, 104-107 (passim) Hormones, see Endocrine system Hospitals and hospitalization, 63, 85 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, 57, 100-101 surveillance data, 17-18, 60-61, 101, 102 see also Emergency care; Nursing homes Hours of work, 3-4, 11, 32, 37, 112, 113, 139, 220 adolescents, 11, 39-43, 95-97, 111, 112, 114, 115, 123-134 (passim), 162, 166, 167, 226 sleep needs and, 11, 95-97, 130 age factors, 5, 11, 12, 18, 21, 38-40, 45, 69-71, 105, 115, 157-158, 162, 164-167 agricultural sector, 13, 155-156, 158, 160-161, 164, 165, 227-228 alcohol use and, 18, 97, 133 CPS, 33, 34, 37, 39-40 Department of Labor, 11, 162, 163, 227 deviance and, 4, 11, 131-134, 139-140, 226 early childhood involvement in work and, 35 educational attainment and, 3, 96-97, 115-120, 123, 124, 138, 139, 140, 226 excessive, 6, 213, 225-226 Fair Labor Standards Act, 21, 162, 163-167, 229 family factors parents' estimates of children's hours of work, 34, 38, 118 time together and, 4, 11, 125-126, 226 gender factors, 115, 116-117, 132-133 hazardous work, 5, 12-13, 85, 158, 164 homework, time spent on, 119, 130 illegal employment, 38 injuries and, 4, 88-89 parents' estimates of children's, 34, 38, 118 poor children, 3, 11, 138 regulation of, 5, 11, 12-13, 21, 157, 162, 163, 164-167, 225-228, 229-230, 232-233 state regulation, 12-13, 165, 193-211, 229-230 table of regulations, by state, 194-211 research methodology, 40 school-to-work relationship, 3, 96-97, 115-120, 165 shifts, 89 smoking and, 18, 133 substance abuse and, 4, 11, 18, 126, 133, 134, 140 summer/holiday employment, 38-41 state regulations, 194-211 supervised, 88 young children, 35, 38

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Protecting Youth at Work: Health, Safety, and Development of Working Children and Adolescents in the United States I Idaho, 196-197 Illinois, 198-199 Illegal employment, 8, 48-49, 180-183, 216-217, 219, 233-234 criminal enterprises, 20, 49, 138 fatalities, 88, 107-108 fines, 181, 182, 183, 232-233 hours of work, 38 immigrants, 52 poverty and, 137-138 sweatshops, 19, 48, 219 Immigrants, 51-52, 219 adolescents, 52 agricultural, historic perspectives, 146, 148, 150 illegal employment, 52 surveillance systems, 8, 51, 52, 217 see also Migrant farm workers Immigration and Naturalization Service, 51 Income, see Poverty; Socioeconomic status; Wages and salaries Indiana, 172, 198-199 Injuries, 4, 53-83, 85-88, 90-94, 97-109, 181 adolescents, 53-54, 58-71, 73-76, 87-88, 98-99, 102-103 fatal, 4, 77-83, 101, 106 adults, 4, 88 age factors, 70-71, 74, 77, 81, 83, 90-91, 99, 101, 104, 108 agricultural sector, 3, 4, 54-55, 58-63, 66-69, 78-81, 104, 106, 107, 142, 143, 145, 149, 152-153, 160, 190-191 amputations, 58-61, 67-68, 90-91 Bureau of Labor Statistics, 56, 57, 79, 98, 100, 103-104, 108-109, 215, 216 burns, 59, 61, 63, 65, 67, 69, 73, 76, 102 causes of, 58-69, 72-74, 78-80, 86, 106, 107, 153, 158, 184 construction workers, 4, 58-67, 76, 78-81, 106 costs of, 54-55, 74, 178-179 demographic factors, general, 101, 104; see specific demographic factors infra and supra disabilities resulting from, 57, 74 amputations, 58-61, 67-68, 90-91 estimates of, 17, 53-70, 83, 100, 101 examples of, 18 gender factors, 70, 71, 81, 82 grocery stores, 53, 54-55, 59-67 (passim), 73, 74, 85, 100 historical perspectives, 19, 23-24 hospitals, injuries of workers at, 63, 85 hours of work and, 4, 88-89 inexperience and, 4-5, 90-91, 108 local factors, 75 machinery, 77, 78, 82-83, 86, 90-91, 105, 106, 107 manufacturing sector, 4, 76, 78-81 musculoskeletal development, 93-94 National Center for Injury Prevention, 216 nursing homes, 53, 54-55, 65, 73, 75, 76, 85 occupational health education, 4-5, 9-10, 86, 87-88, 101-102, 184-192 Occupational Safety and Health Act, 57, 98, 108, 182-183 physical labor and, 5, 71, 74 preventive interventions, general, 75-77, 97, 214; see also occupational health education supra public-sector jobs, 4, 76, 79, 81 research methodology, 56-57, 68-70, 97-98, 104-105, 108-109 restaurants and fast-foot outlets, 4, 54-55, 58-67, 74, 75, 89, 100, 171 retail sector, general, 4, 54-55, 74-75, 78-81, 171 service sector, 3, 59-67 (passim), 75, 76, 78-81 small businesses, non-agricultural, 76, 86

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Protecting Youth at Work: Health, Safety, and Development of Working Children and Adolescents in the United States state government efforts, 57, 58, 60-61, 69, 70, 74, 76, 78, 87-88, 101, 107 state level factors, other, 75, 102-103, 105, 219 summer/holiday employment, 76 surveillance systems Annual Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses, 56, 57, 98, 100, 215, 216 Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries, 79, 103-104, 106, 108-109, 153, 216-217 general, 7, 9, 54-56, 68, 76, 97-108, 152, 215-218, 235 National Electronic Injury Surveillance System, 68, 99-100, 152, 216 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, 57, 100-101, 216 NIOSH, 14, 68, 99-101, 215-216, 219 types and seriousness, 58-69, 72-74 wages and salaries and, 86 workers' compensation, 177-179 workplace factors, general, 58-68, 74-77, 85-86, 88-89; see also specific sectors supra young children, 53, 99 see also Emergency care; Workers' compensation Inspectors and inspections, 15, 107, 160, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 232-234 Insurance, 62 see also Workers' compensation Integrated Management Information System, 103, 107-108 International Labour Organization, 26-27 International perspectives, 23, 26-28, 188 specific countries, 23, 27, 28, 86, 121, 131, 187 see also names of specific countries Iowa, 198-199 J Job skills, 1, 3, 19, 112, 121-122, 124, 126-128, 134, 136, 137 agricultural sector, 140, 151, 156 experience of worker, 4-5, 90-91 injuries and, 86 see also Vocational education Job Training Partnership Act, 10, 223 K Kansas, 198-199 Kentucky, 198-199 L Labor Importation Program, 150 Language factors, 156, 270 disabilities, 50 migrant farm workers, 151, 156 Legislation, 2, 5, 7, 30, 162-184, 185-186, 191 Administrative Procedures Act, 168 Americans with Disabilities Act, 50 Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Applied Technology Education Act, 188, 223 Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969, 24, 183 Department of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education and Related Agencies Appropriations Act of 1998, 141-142 Federal Employment Compensation Act, 178 Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, 163, 174, 175-176 Food Quality Protection Act, 176, 231 Job Training Partnership Act, 10, 233 School-to-Work Opportunities Act of 1994, 10, 30, 163, 186-189, 222-223

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Protecting Youth at Work: Health, Safety, and Development of Working Children and Adolescents in the United States Social Security Act, 24 Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act of 1936, 24 see also Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938; Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970; Regulatory issues Life skills, 1, 3, 19, 22, 26, 112, 121-122, 128-131, 136, 137 agricultural sector, 151 see also Job skills; Peer relationships; Responsibility Local factors, other commendable workplaces, 10-11, 223-224 demonstration projects, 189-190, 222 injuries, 75 Local government school-to-work programs, 10, 187, 222-223 work permits, 172 Longitudinal studies, general, 15, 32, 34-39, 113-114, 118, 132, 235 specific studies, details on, 269-289 see also names of specific studies Louisiana, 198-199 M Machinery, 174, 229 agricultural sector, 142, 148, 149, 157-159, 160, 170 ergonomic factors, 12, 15, 84, 93-94, 228, 236 hazardous orders, 12, 169-171, 228 injuries, 77, 78, 82-83, 86, 90-91, 105, 106, 107 physical capabilities of children and, 5, 94 Maine, 172, 200-201 Managers and supervisors, see Supervision of work Manufacturing sector, 47, 169 injuries, 4, 76, 78-81 Maryland, 200-201 Massachusetts, 23 hours and days of work, 200-201 injuries, 57, 60-61, 69, 70, 74, 76, 87-88, 101, 107 occupational health training, 87-88, 189 toxic substances, 84 work permits, 172 Medline, 29 Methodology, see Research methodology Mexican Americans, 148, 150 Michigan, 172, 200-201 Migrant farm workers, 141, 144, 145, 148-151, 156, 159 surveillance systems, 8, 216, 217, 219 Mine Safety and Health Administration, 183-184 Minimum working age, 5, 12, 14, 27, 164-167, 172 agricultural sector, 157, 158, 164, 167 International Labour Organization, 27 see also Work permits and registration Mining, 67, 78, 90, 164, 169, 183-184 Minnesota, 62-67, 79, 114, 122, 200-201 Minority groups, 3, 7, 8, 49-50, 117, 123, 134-138, 219 African Americans, 33, 49, 123, 135, 150 CPS, 33, 34 Hispanics, 49, 123, 135, 148, 150 Mexican Americans, 148, 150 see also Immigrants Mississippi, 200-201 Missouri, 200-201 Monitoring the Future, 35, 36-37, 42-43, 132, 282-283 Montana, 202-203 Motivation for employment, 25-26 family factors, 25, 121, 135 income, 2, 25, 119, 127

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Protecting Youth at Work: Health, Safety, and Development of Working Children and Adolescents in the United States post-secondary education, 119 promotion, opportunity for, 86, 130-131 Motor vehicles, 4, 78, 82, 105, 107, 158, 159, 169, 170, 229 Musculoskeletal development, 93-94, 156, 236 see also Fractures N National Agricultural Workers Survey, 144, 150-151, 156 National Center for Education Statistics, 8, 219 National Center for Health Statistics, 8, 57, 216, 219 National Center for Injury Prevention, 216 National Consumers League, 182 National Educational Longitudinal Survey, 34, 36-37, 42-43, 114, 115 described, 269-273 National Electronic Injury Surveillance System, 68, 99-100, 152, 216 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, 57, 100-101, 216 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 1, 8, 9, 14, 28 agricultural sector, 153, 190, 232 demonstration projects, 189, 222 educational efforts, 185, 186, 189, 222 hazardous occupation orders, 12, 169, 228 surveillance, 14, 68, 99-101, 215-216, 219 Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation Program, 103, 106-107 National Traumatic Occupational Fatality Surveillance System, 78, 103, 104, 105-106 workers' compensation, 234 work permits, 235 National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, 2, 34, 35, 36-37, 40, 42-43, 50, 114 described, 274-277 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 35, 36-37, 40, 42-45, 49, 113, 115, 116, 123-124, 138, 139 described, 278-281 National Occupational Exposure Survey, 86 National School-to-Work Office, 120, 222 National Survey of Families and Households, 35, 36-37, 42-43, 133, 286-287 National Traumatic Occupational Fatality Surveillance System, 78, 103, 104, 105-106, 216 National Youth Survey, 114, 125, 132 Nebraska, 172, 202-203 Nevada, 123, 202-203 New Hampshire, 172, 202-203 New Immigrant Pilot Study, 52, 288-289 New Jersey, 177, 202-203 New Mexico, 202-203 New York State hours and days of work, 165, 202-203 injury surveillance, 57, 58 workers' compensation, 58-59, 73-74 NIOSH, see National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Noise, 60-61, 84 North Carolina, 79, 84, 204-205 North Dakota, 172, 202-203 Nursing homes, 3 injuries, 53, 54-55, 65, 73, 75, 76, 85 O Occupational diseases, 83-85 agricultural sector, 143, 145, 153-154, 160-161

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Protecting Youth at Work: Health, Safety, and Development of Working Children and Adolescents in the United States BLS surveillance, 56, 57, 98, 100, 215 estimates of, 17 heat-related illness, 13, 156, 230 historical perspectives, 23-24 occupational health training and, 4, 24, 87-88 pesticide-related, 14, 83, 84, 86, 154-155 preventive measures, 4, 24 surveillance systems, 7, 8, 56, 57, 98, 100, 215-217, 235 see also Fatalities; Injuries; Toxic substances; Workers' compensation Occupational safety and health, see Fatalities; Hazardous work; Injuries; Noise; Occupational diseases; Preventive interventions; Protective clothing and equipment; Regulatory issues; Sanitation; Standards; Toxic substances Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, 5, 24, 163, 182-183 agricultural sector, 141, 157, 159, 160, 174, 175 hazardous work, 24, 108, 173, 174, 175, 182-183 injuries, 57, 98, 108, 182-183 workers' compensation, 178 Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 173-175, 182-183 agricultural sector, 13-14, 141, 157, 159, 230-231, 232 fatalities, 88, 107-108 surveillance, 14, 72, 98, 100, 107-108, 219-220 training standards, 87 workers' compensation, 234 Ohio, 204-205 Oklahoma, 172, 204-205 Oregon, 123, 173, 206-207, 235 OSHA, see Occupational Safety and Health Administration P Panel Survey of Income Dynamics, 36, 284-285 Parents, 272 attitudes toward children working, 19, 25-26, 118, 122, 126-127 disabled children, 51 family farmers, 146 demonstration projects, 189 education of, child labor laws, 185 estimates of children's hours of work, 34, 38, 118 estimates of child work force, 2, 38 gender factors, 126 immigrant, 52 migrant farm workers without, 157 work permit authorization, 173 see also Family factors Peer relationships, 114, 122, 125, 128, 134, 140, 272, 275 dating, 128 Penalties, see Fines Pennsylvania, 206-207 Permits, see Work permits and registration Pesticides, 14, 83, 84, 86, 154-155, 161, 170, 174, 216 diseases related to, 14, 83, 84, 86, 154-155 Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, 163, 174, 175-176 non-agricultural exposure, 174 Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children, 174 Physical development, 19, 88, 92-97,110 ergonomic factors, 12, 15, 84, 93-94, 228, 236 exercise, 11, 226 machine use and, 5, 94 musculoskeletal system, 93-94, 156, 236 sleep, 11, 95-97, 130, 140, 156 Physical labor agricultural sector, 155-156, 236

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Protecting Youth at Work: Health, Safety, and Development of Working Children and Adolescents in the United States injuries, 5 age factors, 74 gender factors, 71 Place of work, see Workplace factors Post-secondary education, 3, 51, 116-124 (passim), 138, 140, 188 Poverty, 3, 134-138, 140 adolescents, 134-138 (passim) agricultural sector, 151 CPS, 135 developmental processes, physical and cognitive, 135 hazardous work, 3, 47, 49, 135, 140 homeless persons, 48 hours of work, 3, 11, 138 illegal employment and, 137-138 motivation for work, 134-135 racial and ethnic factors and, 49-50 small business employers, 117 supervision of work, 137 surveillance systems, 7, 135, 219 Preventive interventions, 11-15, 176-177 company policies, 24 federal task force, 14, 176-177 injuries, 75-77, 97, 214 occupational health education, 4-5, 9-10, 86, 87-88, 101-102, 184-192 protective clothing and equipment, 84, 160, 174 see also Regulatory issues; Standards Promotion, opportunity for, 86, 130-131 Prostitution, 20, 49, 138 Protective clothing and equipment, 84, 160, 174 Psychosocial factors, 2, 15, 19, 22, 111-112, 114, 128-131, 236 depression, 131 family farms, 146-147 life skills, 1, 3 peer relationships, 111 stress, 15, 84, 91, 93, 112, 130, 131, 134, 140, 236 see also Attitudes; Gender factors; Minority groups; Self-esteem Public-sector jobs, injuries, 4, 76, 79, 81 R Racial and ethnic factors, see Minority groups Regional factors, 114, 132 agricultural sector, 148, 149, 150 information and training, 221 Registration, see Work permits and registration Regulatory issues, 2, 5, 7, 29, 30, 162-184, 191, 225-235 agricultural sector, 13-14, 141-142, 157-160, 174-175, 181, 227-228, 230-231 legal exceptions to regulations, 5, 13-14, 141-142, 157, 164, 165, 218, 230-231 cost of compliance, 183 hours of work, 5, 11, 12-13, 21, 157, 162, 163, 164-167, 225-228, 229-230, 232-233 state regulation, 12-13, 165, 193-211, 229-230 table of regulations, by state, 194-211 inspectors and inspections, 15, 107, 160, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184 International Labour Organization, 26-27 pesticides, 163, 164, 167, 170, 174, 175-176, 230, 232 public education regarding, 185-186 public opinion on, 19 small businesses, 13-14 state regulation, 5, 83, 141, 163, 168, 181-182, 229-230, 232-233 hours of work, 12-13, 165, 193-211, 229-230

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Protecting Youth at Work: Health, Safety, and Development of Working Children and Adolescents in the United States table of regulations, by state, 194-211 work permits and registration, 15, 172-173 summer and holiday employment, 194-211 toxic substances, 12, 158, 159, 170, 173-174, 228, 229 see also Hazardous orders; Legislation; Standards; Work permits and registration Research, see Surveillance systems and data Research methodology, 1, 28-30, 217-220 agricultural sector, 144-145, 152, 155 CPS, 32-34, 35, 36-37, 38, 218, 219 correlational studies, general, 113, 138-138 cross-sectional studies, general, 32, 114, 119, 131-133 hours of work, 40 injuries, 56-57, 68-70, 97-98, 104-105, 108-109 longitudinal studies, 15, 32, 34-39, 113-114, 118, 132, 235, 269-289 Research recommendations, 15, 29, 176, 235-236 regional centers, 221 surveillance and data, 7-9, 214-220 workers' compensation, 234 work permits, 235 Responsibility, sense of, 3, 17, 19, 26, 121-122, 128-129, 130, 212 Restaurants and fast-foot outlets illegal employment, 180 injuries, 4, 54-55, 58-67, 74, 75, 89, 100, 171 work force estimates, 3, 43, 46, 47 Retail sector fatalities, 4 illegal employment, 180 injuries, 4, 54-55, 74-75, 78-81, 171 work force estimates, 3, 32, 43, 46-47 see also Grocery stores Rhode Island, 206-207 Runaways, 48 Rural areas, 127-128, 138 S Safety, see Fatalities; Injuries; Occupational diseases Salaries and wages, see Wages and salaries Sanitation, agricultural sector, 155, 156, 159 School-to-Work Opportunities Act of 1994, 10, 30, 163, 186-189, 222-223 School-to-work relationship, 8, 121-125 after-school jobs, 11, 40, 41-43, 114, 136 state regulations, 194-211 historical perspectives, 21-23 homework, 119, 130 hours of work, impact on academic performance, 3, 96-97, 115-120, 165 job skills, 1, 19, 112, 121-123 migrant workers, 156 misconduct in school, 132 placements, 11 school-to-work programs, 10, 30, 119-120, 163, 186-189, 190, 217 work during school hours, regulation of, 165 work force estimates, 17, 41-45 after-school jobs, 11, 40, 41-43, 114 work permits, 172 see also Dropouts; Vocational education Self-employed persons, 102 see also Family farms

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Protecting Youth at Work: Health, Safety, and Development of Working Children and Adolescents in the United States Self-esteem, 1, 3, 17, 128-131, 138, 212, 272, 275 gender factors, 130-131 Service sector injuries, 3, 59-67 (passim), 75, 76, 78-81 work force estimates, 3, 32, 43, 47 Sex differences, see Gender factors Skills, see Life skills; Work skills Sleep, 11, 95-97, 130, 140, 156 Small businesses, 86, 152, 181 agricultural sector, 13-14, 148, 157, 159, 174, 230; see also Family farms family businesses, non-agricultural, 20, 29, 102, 104, 167, 171 injuries, general, 76, 86 poor and minority employees, 137 Smoking, 126, 134 hours of work and, 18, 133 Social factors, see Psychosocial factors Social Security Act, 24 Socioeconomic status, 3 disabled persons, 51 hazardous work, 47 participation in work force, 110, 134-136, 139 racial and ethnic factors and, 49-50 see also Poverty; Wages and salaries SOII, see Annual Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses South Carolina, 206-207 South Dakota, 206-207 Standards, 162-184, 191, 213 demonstration projects, 189-190, 222 hazardous substances, 84-85 pesticides, 14, 163, 174, 175-176 surveillance systems, data standards, 8, 14, 219-220 work environment, general, 87 commendable employers, 10-11, 223-225 see also Regulatory issues State government agricultural sector, 141, 163, 174-175 educational efforts, 186 enforcement fines, 181, 182, 183, 232 identification of violators, 233 inspectors and inspections, 15, 107, 160, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 232-234 hazardous orders, role in, 12-13, 230, 235 historical perspectives, 23-24 injuries, 57, 58, 60-61, 69, 70, 74, 76, 78, 87-88, 101, 107 regulations, 5, 83, 141, 163, 168, 181-182, 229-230, 232-233 hours of work, 12-13, 165, 193-211, 229-230 table of regulations, by state, 194-211 work permits and registration, 15, 172-173 school-to-work programs, 10, 187, 222-223 small businesses, 181 surveillance data, 58-68, 75, 101-104, 216, 235 see also Workers' compensation; Work permits and registration; specific states State-level factors, other injuries, 75, 102-103, 105, 219 surveillance systems, 7, 8, 38, 58-68, 215, 219 see also specific states Statistical programs and activities, see Surveillance systems and data Stress, 15, 84, 91, 93, 112, 130, 131, 134, 140, 236 see also Physical labor Substance abuse drug dealing, 20, 49, 138 Drug Use Forecasting Program, 48-49 hours of work and, 4, 11, 18, 126,133, 134, 140 runaways, 48 see also Alcohol use and abuse

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Protecting Youth at Work: Health, Safety, and Development of Working Children and Adolescents in the United States Summer and holiday employment, 2, 31, 37, 40, 136, 220 hours of work, 38-41 state regulations, 194-211 injuries, 76 surveillance systems, 8, 37 Supervision of work, 4, 15, 86, 88-89, 122, 127, 131, 171, 236 poor and minority employees, 137 Surveillance systems and data, 8-9, 15, 32, 181-182, 214-229 agricultural sector, 144-145, 152, 155 migrant farm workers, 8, 216, 217, 219 pesticides, 14, 28, 155 defined, 97 fatalities, 103-109 Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries, 79, 103-104, 106, 108-109, 153, 216-217 Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation Program, 103, 106-107, 216 National Traumatic Occupational Fatality Surveillance System, 78, 103, 104, 105-106, 216 foreign countries, 27-28 health hazards, 9, 83-85, 215-216 hospitalization, 17-18, 60-61, 101, 102; see also Emergency care immigrants, 8, 51, 52, 217 injuries Annual Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses, 56, 57, 98, 100, 215, 216 Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries, 79, 103-104, 106, 108-109, 153, 216-217 general, 7, 9, 54-56, 68, 76, 97-108, 152, 215-218, 235 National Electronic Injury Surveillance System, 68, 99-100, 152, 216 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, 57, 100-101, 216 NIOSH, 14, 68, 99-101, 215-216, 219 methodological issues, 2, 7, 29, 31, 217-220 occupational diseases, 7, 8, 56, 57, 98, 100, 215-217, 235 OSHA, 14, 72, 98, 100, 107-108, 219-220 pesticides, 155 poor persons, 7, 135, 219 state role, 58-68, 75, 101-104, 216, 235 work force estimates, general, 2, 8, 28; see also specific sectors see also Bureau of Labor Statistics; Longitudinal studies; specific systems and surveys Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses, see Annual Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses Sweatshops, 19, 48, 219 Switzerland, 27 T Task Force on Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks to Children, 14, 176-177, 232 Teenagers, see Adolescents Temporal factors family, time spent together, 4, 11, 125-126, 226 homework, 119, 130 television-watching time, 130 time-management skills, 1, 26, 129 times of work, standards, 165 see also Hours of work; Longitudinal studies Tennessee, 206-207 Texas, 177, 208-209 agricultural workers, 175 injuries, 60-61, 78 Time factors, see Temporal factors Tobacco use, see Smoking

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Protecting Youth at Work: Health, Safety, and Development of Working Children and Adolescents in the United States Toxic substances, 83-85, 86, 92-93, 98-103 agricultural chemicals, 84, 154, 159, 170, 174, 176, 231-232; see also Pesticides information on exposure, 4, 28, 99, 155, 236 regulation, 12, 158, 159, 170, 173-174, 228, 229 Training, see Education and training U Unemployment, 3, 122 dropouts, 38-39, 116, 156, 166-167, 227 Urban areas, 38, 69, 127-128, 131, 137-138 Utah, 62-63, 208-209 V Vermont, 75, 208-209 Virginia, 208-209 Vocational education, 120, 136, 187-189, 191 agricultural, 60, 84, 190-191 apprenticeships, 10, 21, 27, 120, 169, 187, 188, 224 historical perspectives, 22-23 International Labour Organization, 27 occupational health, 4-5, 9-10, 86, 87-88, 101-102, 184-192 school-to-work programs, 10, 30, 119-120, 163, 186-189 W Wages and salaries, 1, 3, 232-233 agricultural sector, 151-152, 158, 160 CPS, 33 injuries correlated with, 86 long-term benefits of work, 3, 122-123, 124, 138, 139, 212 motivation for work, 2, 25, 119, 127 see also Workers' compensation Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act of 1936, 24 Washington State agricultural sector, 174-175 hours and days of work, 165, 167, 208-209 injuries, 57-58, 62-65, 76 work permits, 172-173, 235 West Virginia, 208-209 Wholesale trade, 47, 78, 80 Wisconsin, 68-69, 84, 114, 120, 125, 210-211 Workers' compensation, 15, 24, 73-74, 86, 163, 177-179, 184, 234 adolescents, 57, 58, 60-67, 73-74 fatalities, 179 surveillance data, 57, 58, 60-67, 91, 102 Work intensity, see Hours of work Work permits and registration, 15, 172-173, 234-235 Workplace factors, general, 46-47 injuries, 58-68, 74-77, 85-86, 88-89 work environment, general, 87 commendable employers, 10-11, 223-225 see also Hazardous work; specific sectors Work skills experience of worker, 4-5, 90-91 injuries and, 86 see also Job skills; Vocational education Wyoming, 210-211 Y Young children, 52 agricultural sector, 144-145, 159, 152, 153-154, 157, 158 defined, 19 hours of work, 35, 38 injuries, 53, 99 Youth Development Study, 114, 130-131