New York state alone reported that more than 1,200 youths received compensation for occupational injuries that resulted in 8 or more days lost from work each year from 1980 to 1987; more than 40 percent of the injuries resulted in permanent disability (Belville et al., 1993). In Washington state, which collects data on all injuries re-gardless of lost work time, more than 4,400 young workers were awarded workers' compensation benefits annually from 1988 to 1991 (Miller, 1995). Brooks et al. (1993) report that in Massachusetts from 1988 through 1990 approximately 700 workers under the age of 18 filed claims annually for injuries resulting in 5 or more days away from work. These findings vary widely because eligibility requirements for worker's compensation vary by state. Table 3-2 summarizes the findings from the major studies of work-related injuries.

Injury logs maintained by employers in accordance with the re-quirements of the Occupational Health and Safety Act also shed light on the extent of injuries to young workers. Each year the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) conducts the Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses (SOII), based on the injury logs required of a sample of private employers throughout the United States. According to these official statistics, in 1993 youngsters in private-sector industries suffered an estimated 21,620 injuries and illnesses that necessitated days away from work. The median number of lost work days was 3. The survey excludes the self-employed, farms with fewer than 11 employees, private households, and government, which means that the survey does not cover at least 11 percent of working youth, according to one estimate (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1996).

Emergency-department records are another key source of information about work-related injuries suffered by adolescents. These records document not only serious injuries, but also injuries that do not necessarily require time away from work. In the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, the National Center for Health Statistics of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services annually collects information on a nationally representative sample of emergency department visits. Between 1992 and 1994, there was an annual average of 2,111,000 emergency department visits by 15-to 17-year-olds for injuries. For 1993 and 1994, the years for which data on place of injury were collected, 5 percent



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