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Index A ACTION, 61, 72 Age and bias toward older 70-71 and disabilities or illness, 100-102 and educational attainment, 130-132 and geographic distribution patterns, 120-121, 122-123 and hours spent in housework, 94-96 and household trends, 133 and marital status, 132-137 and paid work hours 94-96, 126 , , 127 and participation in labor force, 121-129 and population projections, 116-117 and problems in comparing age groups, 101, 103 and productive work at home, 81 and type of volunteer activities, 27-28 and volunteer time, 76-78 Altruism in volunteerism, 28-29 unequal benefits, 104 Anderson, J. M., 126 Appreciation, and morale of volunteers, 63-64 Ascher, W., 110,113 B Bacellar, Helena, 110-147 Barfield, Richard, 77 Barriers to productive activity, 103-104 to voluntarism, 17-19, 56-60 removal or reduction of, 60-71 Beneficiaries of volunteerism, needs of, 45-46 Bias against older persons, 70-71 Birth rate, projections for, 119 Boulding, Kenneth, 28-29 C Car repairs, as do-it-yourself activities, 79-85 149

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150 Census Bureau projections, for population structure of U.S., 113-120, 144-145 Characteristics of older persons, 10-15 Characteristics of volunteers, 54 Child care, time spent in, 90 Clerical staff, relationships to volunteers, 67 Community settings, support networks in, 19-20, 105 Compensation or rewards for volunteering, 8-9, 16-17,24, 29,40 Consumption hypothesis of volunteering, 30, 31, 36-37 Costs involved in volunteer activities, 57-58, 69 Crowding-out issue, in government expenditures, 36-38 D Demography characteristics of older persons, 10-15 characteristics of volunteers, 54 future unpaid productive roles, 110-147 numbers of older persons, 5, 53 numbers of volunteers, 18,26 population structure in U.S., 113-120 Dependency ratios, 114 economic implications of, 2-4 Deputization of volunteers, 65-66 Diaries, for accounting of time, 74, 75 Disabilities, and capacity for work, 100-102 Disincentives to productive activity, 103-104 to voluntarism, 16, 17-19,56-60 and removal or reduction of barriers, 60-71 Do-it-yourself activities, 79-85 INDEX EEconomic status of older persons, 11-12. See also Income Economics of volunteerism, 7-8, 21,23-50 measurements in, 74-75 Educational levels of older persons, 12 projected trends in, 129, 131-132 and volunteer time, 76-77 Emergency help, 44, 78-79 Employers, as aid to recruitment of older volunteers, 62 Employment. See Labor force Encouragement and support, for volunteers, 69 Expenditures by government, affecting volunteering, 36-38 for health care, 141 Expenses involved in volunteer activities, 57-58,69 Experience, as compensation for volunteering, 29-32 FFamily patterns changes during lifetime, 88-90 and housework hours, 85-88 and mutual aid for family members, 137-139 and obligations affecting volunteering, 32-35 of older persons, 12-13 projections for, 132-137 Female demographics. See Women Fertility rate, projections for, 119 Financial status of older persons, 11-12. See also Income Financial value of unpaid work measurements of, 74-75 recognition of, 64 Food growing or preservation, participation in, 79, 80, 82, 83

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INDEX Formal volunteer organizations performance evaluation of, 45 professional bias against volunteers in, 59 relationship of clerical help to volunteers in, 67 Future unpaid productive roles, 110-147 G Gallup survey (1981),39,40,51, 53,54 Geographic distribution of U.S. population, 120-121, 122-123 Government expenditures affecting volunteering, 36-38 H Hamilton survey, 54-55 Hammel, E. A., 137 Harris survey on aging (1981),51, 53,54,55,60 Health care or services alternative systems for, 107 expenditures for, 141 increased need for, 4-5 unpaid personnel for, 5 Health status and capacity for work, 101, 102 and mortality rates, 119 of older persons, 14-15 projections for, 139-143 Heart disease, survival rates with, 143 Hendricks, G., 126 Home repair or improvements, as do-it-yourself activities, 79-85 Hospital care expenditures for, 141 projections for, 140 151 Household characteristics. See Family patterns Housework, time spent in, 79, 85-88,90-92 and paid work hours, 93-97 Hypertension, survival rates with, 143 I ICF Incorporated, 126, 145 Illnesses and capacity for work, 101, 102 and health status of older persons, 14-15 and projections of health statistics, 140 Impediments and barriers to productive activity, 103-104 for older volunteers, 17-19, 56-60 removal or reduction of, 60-71 Incentives for productive activity, 103-104 for voluntarism, 8-9, 16-17, 24-25,28-38,40-45 policy implications of, 36-38 Income and financial status of older persons, 11-12 expectations for, 128, 129 Panel Study of Income Dynamics, 78, 80, 88 and volunteerism, 31-32, 57-58, 69 during retirement, 34-35 Informal donations of time, money, and goods, 39-40, 44, 76. See also Mutual help Insurance fund for multilateral arrangements, 105 liability, for voluntary organizations, 65, 70 Investment hypothesis of volunteering, 30-31, 36

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152 J Job descriptions for volunteer activities, 66-67 K Keyfitz, N., 146 Kieffer, Jarold A., 17-18, 19, 51-72 Kinship relations. See Family patterns L Labor force disabilities affecting work in, 100, 101, 102 forecasts of participation rates in, 121-129 older persons in, 11 and paid work hours by age and sex, 126, 127 compared to housework hours, 93-97 ratio to retired population, 2 underemployment in, 97-99 women in, 121, 124-127 and volunteer activities, 43-44 Labor unions, attitudes toward volunteers, 57, 68 Legal aspects and deputization of volunteers, 65 and restrictions on use of volunteers, 67-68 Liability of organizations and deputization of volunteers, 65-66 and insurance coverage, 70 Long, J. F., 145 M Macroeconomic- demographic model for projection studies 124-125, 145 INDEX Male studies. See Men Manton, Kenneth G., 110-147 Marital status, projected changes in, 132-137 McNaught, W., 126 Men disabilities or illnesses in, 100, 101, 102 educational attainment of, 129-132 kinship relations of, 137-139 marital status projections for, 132-137 in nonfamily households, 133 paid work, hours of, 126, 127 compared to housework hours, 94-96 participation in labor force, 121, 124-126 population projections for, 116-117 volunteerism of factors affecting, 34-35 time spent in, 27 type of activities in, 27 Menchik, Paul L., 30, 36-37 Microsimulation model for projection studies, 126, 145 Money donations, 76 for emergency help, 78-79 Morale of volunteers, recognition and appreciation affecting, 63-64 Morgan, James N., 8, 11-12, 13, 14, 16-17, 19-20,73-109 Morgan, Leslie, 78 Mortality rate, projections for, 119 and health statistics, 140 Motivations. See Incentives Mutual help, 104-105 in community settings, 19-20 and informal donations of time, money, and goods, 39-40,44, 76 and kinship relations, 137-139 Myers, George C., 10, 11, 12, 13, 14-15, 16, 110-147

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INDEX N National Institute on Aging, 110 National Longitudinal Surveys, 39,41,49 Nonfamily households, characteristics of, 132-133 Number of older persons, increase in, 5, 53 Number of volunteers, 18, 26 Nursing home care expenditures for, 141 projections for, 140 o Organizations, volunteer performance evaluation of, 45 professional bias against volunteers in, 59 relationships of clerical help to volunteers in, 67 p Paid work hours by age and sex, 126, 127 compared to housework hours, 93-97 Panel Study of Income Dynamics, 78,80,88 Personal recruitment methods, S need for, 61 Physician services, projections for, Self-help 140 Population structure in U.S., projections for, 113-120 Pritchard, David C., 105 Private employers, as aid to recruitment of older volunteers, 62 Productivity, definitions of, 2-4 Professional staff 153 bias against volunteers, 59 and reactions of clerical help, 67 Pullum, T. W., 137 R Reagan administration, 56 Reasons for volunteering. See Incentives Recognition, and morale of volunteers, 63-64 Recruitment of older volunteers, 60-63 Report of the National Research on Aging Planning Panel (1982), 110-111 Resource allocations, by voluntary sector, 46, 47 Restrictions on use of volunteers, legal aspects of, 67-68 Retired population, ratio to working population, 2 Retirement income in, and volunteer activities, 34-35 and policies affecting labor force participation, 126, 129 Rewards of voluntarism, 8-9, 17, 24,29,40 Romero, Carol J., 9-10, 16, 23-50 Rosow, I., 111 in community settings, 19-20 and do-it-yourself activities, 79-85 Sex differences in studies. See Men; Women Social services increased need for, 4-5 unpaid personnel for, 5 Storey, J. R., 126

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154 Stoto, M. A., 146 Support and encouragement for volunteers, 69 Survey of Giving (1973),39,40 T Taxes and age-based benefits, 11 and charitable contributions, 78 and expense deductions for volunteer work, 56-57 Time-diaries, use of, 74, 75 Time spent 12 in housework, 79, 85-88, 90-92 compared to paid work hours, 93-97 n volunteering, 24, 26-27, 40, 42-43,76-78 for emergency help, 78-79 income related to, 31-32, 57-58,69 Training and experience, as compensation for volunteering, 29-32 Transportation needs, in volunteer activities, 58 Turnover among volunteers, effects of, 42 Types of volunteer activities, 23-24,27-28,39,51, 110-111 U Underemployment, and desire for more work, 97-99 Unions, attitudes toward volunteers, 57, 68 Urban Institute, projection studies by, 126, 145 Uses of donated time and goods, 40 INDEX V Value of unpaid work and economics of volunteerism, 7-8,21,23-50 measurements of, 74-75 recognition of, 64 Volunteer work, definition of, 52 W Wages. See Income Weisbrod, Burton A., 30, 36-37 Wertheimer, R. F., 126 White House Conference on Aging (1981),56 Wolf, D. A., 137 Women disabilities or illnesses in, 100, 101-102 educational attainment of 129-132 marital status projections for, 132-137 in nonfamily households, 132-133 paid work hours of, 126, 127 compared to housework hours, 93-97 participation in labor force, 121, 124-126 and volunteerism, 43-44 population projections for, 116-117 volunteerism of factors affecting, 34-36, 55 time spent in, 26 type of activities in, 27 Work force. See Labor force Worthy, Edmund, 54 z Zedlewski, S. R., 126