fusing and sometimes conflicting approaches to water management are baffling. There is no one consistent voice for the water resource.

As an intellectual and organizational tool, watershed-scale management can be useful in many circumstances, especially for managing biological and geophysical resources and especially for local and some regional applications. The value of watershed management as a means for truly integrated efforts to achieve a balance of ecological, economic, and social goals remains a hypothesis that has not yet been completely proven. But flexible application of watershed principles can improve the joint efforts of researchers, managers, decisionmakers, and citizens in their search for a sustainable economy and a quality environment.

References

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Brezonik, P. L. and W. Cooper. 1994. Reauthorization of the Clean Water Act: important issues for water quality scientists. Water Resources Update, winter 1994: 47-51.


Graf, W.L. 1996. Geomorphology and Policy for Restoration of Impounded American Rivers: What is Natural? Pp. 443-473 in The Scientific Nature of Geomorphology. New York: John Wiley and Sons.


Moyle, P. B., and R. M. Yoshiyama. 1994. Protection of aquatic biodiversity in California: a five-tiered approach. Fisheries 19(2):6-18.


National Research Council (NRC). 1996. Upstream: Salmon and Society in the Pacific Northwest. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.


Patrick, R. 1992. Surface Water Quality: Have the Laws Been Successful? Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.

Postel, S. L., G. C. Dailey, and P. R. Ehrlich, 1996. Human appropriation of renewable fresh water. Science 271:785-788.


Sedell, J. R., G. H. Reeves, and K. M. Burnett. 1994. Development and evaluation of aquatic conservation strategies. Journal of Forestry 92(4):28-31.

Stanford, J. A., J. V. Ward, W. J. Liss, C. A. Frissell, R. N. Williams, J. A. Lichatowich, and C. C. Countant. 1996. A general protocol for restoration of regulated rivers. Regulated Rivers 12:391-413.

Stanford, J. A. 1997. Toward a Robust Water Policy for the Western USA: Synthesis of Science. Pages 1-11 in Aquatic ecosystem symposium: A report to the Western Water Policy Advisory Commission. Tempe, Arizona: Arizona State University.



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