to coastal dischargers [Section 301(h)]. In addition, extensions for reaching the treatment limitations were granted to industrial discharges. The EPA reclassified and revised the toxic pollutant list to arrange toxins in three Groups: (1) "conventional pollutants" such as biological oxygen demand (BOD) and suspended solids, (2) "nonconventional pollutants" such as phosphorus and nitrogen, and (3) priority pollutants, or toxic pollutants, such as synthetic organic chemicals [Section 301(b)(7 (C)].
The primary goal of these amendments (Public Law 97-117) was to reform the federal construction grant program for municipal wastewater treatment plants, which had been creating major reductions in federal financial assistance to the local governments for the construction of wastewater treatment facilities. The amendments also extended the national deadline for meeting full secondary treatment deadlines to 1988 (Portney, 1990; WEF and Kovalic, 1993).
This final set of major amendments to the federal Clean Water Act brought the policies for water quality programs full circle to the policies before 1972. The amendments reaffirmed the states' primary authority and responsibility for developing and implementing programs to meet federal water quality goals [Section 101(b)]. In addition, the discharge requirements for many water bodies went back to being based on water quality, instead of uniform technology-based standards for the nation. Previous technology-based limits and standards for municipal and industrial DPES permits had been issued without regard to the quality of the receiving water. The move back to water-quality-based standards based the discharge limits on the designated use of the water and the standards required to sustain that use. States were also granted the authority to decide themselves on the programs for meeting water quality based standards (WEF and Kovalic, 1993).
The major responsibilities, including financial ones, for wastewater treatment facilities were also handed down to the states. A schedule was developed to gradually eliminate federal grants for POTW construction and replace the program with state revolving fund loans (Portney, 1990; Water Quality 2000, 1992; WEF and Kovalic, 1993).
One of the most significant amendments to the Clean Water Act was the addition of a fifth national policy in Title 1, the national policy for control of nonpoint sources (NPS) of pollution [Section 101(a)(7)]. Under Section 304, EPA sets the guidelines for controlling NPS pollution, and the regulation of activities that cause "diffuse and intermittent flows of pollutants." This section also identifies the programs of other federal agencies that may be affected by the