Index

A

Abortions, spontaneous, 193

Activated carbon.

See Granular activated carbon (GAC)

Activated sludge process, 21, 25, 91-92, 104

Acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI), reports of, 77, 83

Adenovirus, 80-81, 85

Adsorption/desorption processes, 61-63

Advanced wastewater treatment (AWT) plants, 25, 30, 47-50, 53, 68, 241

See also Wastewater;

Water treatment;

Water treatment facilities

emergency response plans at, 52

Advanced-oxidation processes.

See Oxidation processes

Aerated lagoons, 91, 97

Aeromonas, 87-88

Agencies.

See Regulatory issues;

Water agencies

Agricultural chemicals, 4-5

AIDS patients, chronic diarrhea in, 87

Air stripping processes, 49, 236

Algae control, 25

Alkylphenol ethoxylate, 180

Alkylphenoxy ethoxycarboxylates (APDCs), 64

Alkylphenoxypoly ethoxylates (APnEOs), 64-67

Alkylphenylpoly ethoxycarboxylates (APnECs), 66-67

Alternative disposal routes.

See Water disposal

Ambient water

microbial contaminants in, 92-93

mixing reclaimed water with, 2

Amebic dysentery, 79

American Public Health Association, 229

American Water Works Association, 209

Ames test, 138, 165, 169-172

Analytical tools, developing new, 61-63

Anthropogenic contaminants, 4, 17-19, 227

Aquatic humus, 4

Aquifers, injecting wastewater into, 2, 4, 22, 24

Arizona.

See also Salt River Valley

Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ), 41-42

Department of Water Resources (ADWR), 41-42

water reuse regulations in, 31, 41-42, 96-97, 120

Artificial recharge.

See Ground water

Assessment.

See Health and safety testing;

Risk assessment

Astrovirus, 80-81, 84-85



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--> Index A Abortions, spontaneous, 193 Activated carbon. See Granular activated carbon (GAC) Activated sludge process, 21, 25, 91-92, 104 Acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI), reports of, 77, 83 Adenovirus, 80-81, 85 Adsorption/desorption processes, 61-63 Advanced wastewater treatment (AWT) plants, 25, 30, 47-50, 53, 68, 241 See also Wastewater; Water treatment; Water treatment facilities emergency response plans at, 52 Advanced-oxidation processes. See Oxidation processes Aerated lagoons, 91, 97 Aeromonas, 87-88 Agencies. See Regulatory issues; Water agencies Agricultural chemicals, 4-5 AIDS patients, chronic diarrhea in, 87 Air stripping processes, 49, 236 Algae control, 25 Alkylphenol ethoxylate, 180 Alkylphenoxy ethoxycarboxylates (APDCs), 64 Alkylphenoxypoly ethoxylates (APnEOs), 64-67 Alkylphenylpoly ethoxycarboxylates (APnECs), 66-67 Alternative disposal routes. See Water disposal Ambient water microbial contaminants in, 92-93 mixing reclaimed water with, 2 Amebic dysentery, 79 American Public Health Association, 229 American Water Works Association, 209 Ames test, 138, 165, 169-172 Analytical tools, developing new, 61-63 Anthropogenic contaminants, 4, 17-19, 227 Aquatic humus, 4 Aquifers, injecting wastewater into, 2, 4, 22, 24 Arizona. See also Salt River Valley Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ), 41-42 Department of Water Resources (ADWR), 41-42 water reuse regulations in, 31, 41-42, 96-97, 120 Artificial recharge. See Ground water Assessment. See Health and safety testing; Risk assessment Astrovirus, 80-81, 84-85

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--> Authorities, 12. See also Public health concerns; Regulatory issues; Water agencies AWT. See Advanced wastewater treatment B Bacterial pathogens, 6. See also individual bacteria aquatic, possible concern about, 87-88 culturing, 77, 122 detecting, 121, 124-125 enteric, 77-79 list of, 75 markers for, 6 microscopy for, 123 Barriers defined, 208 independence of, evaluating, 12, 110-111, 209-211, 236 providing multiple, 12, 208-213, 236 securing data about, 6-7 Baseline testing, 183-187 Basin overdraft, 25 Bias, sources of, 149, 152-154 Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), 21 carbonaceous (CBOD), 39 Biological agents. See Microbial contaminants in reuse systems Biomarkers, 149-150 Biomolecular assessment, 7, 129-131, 154 Birth defects, 16 Blue Plains Wastewater Treatment Plant, 27, 165 Blue-green algae, 88 Breakthroughs. See Contaminant breakthroughs Bromates, removing, 54 Buffers. See Environmental buffers C Calcivirus, 80-81, 84 California. See also Los Angeles County; Orange County; Palo Alto treatment system; San Diego's Total Resources Recovery Project Department of Health Services, 38, 234-235 viral studies in, 100 wastewater reclamation criteria, 31, 36-38, 218 Campylobacter, 6, 78, 108 culturing for, 77 Carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (CBOD), monitoring, 39 Carcinogenicity, 16, 136, 141-142, 154, 185, 198-199 of chlorinated water, 11, 150, 173 Case-control studies, 147, 152-153 Causal relationships. See Etiological agents, detecting Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 77, 232-233 Certifying operators for water treatment facilities, 13, 235-236, 238 Chemical contaminants, 3-6, 45-71. See also Organic compounds evaluating, 135-145, 156-157 managing input to reuse systems, 5, 50-53 recognized, 20, 46-50 Chemical disinfection processes, 107-108 See also Chlorination processes; Coagulation processes; Oxidation processes; Ozone processes using along with physical treatment, 6 Chemical evaluation, ix, 3-4, 9, 68-69 Chemical oxygen demand (COD), reducing, 53 Chlorination processes, 5, 25, 70, 97 See also Disinfection by-products (DBPs) link to cancer, 11, 150, 173 Cholera outbreaks, 76, 214 Chromatography, 61, 63 Chromosomal abnormalities, 16 Clarification. See Lime clarification Clastogenicity, 16 Clean Water Act, 51 Clostridilum perfringens, 7, 90, 95 as indicator bacterium, 127-128, 155 Coagulation processes, 17, 22, 236 with ferric chloride, 29 Coastal aquifers, injecting wastewater into, 22, 24-25 Cohort studies, 147-148, 153, 204 Coliform bacteria, 20 monitoring, 39, 89-90, 108-109, 118-119 standards for, 83 Coliphage virus, 128 F-specific, 7, 155 Colorado. See Denver's Direct Potable Water Reuse Demonstration Project Composites, flow-proportioned, 224

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--> Concentrating trace organic compounds, 61-63 uncertainties introduced by, 179-180 Confounding bias, 154 Consequence-frequency assessment, 219-222 of advanced wastewater treatment (AWT) facilities, 241-247 Consumer groups, involving, 13 Contaminant breakthroughs, 12, 223 preventing, 237 Contaminants. See also Anthropogenic contaminants; Chemical contaminants; Contaminant breakthroughs; Heavy metals; Microbial contaminants; Monitoring programs; and individual contaminants characterizing, 10-11, 59, 156, 203 mixtures of, 7, 45-46, 59-63 reduced through natural processes, 17-18, 92-93, 214-217 unidentified, 58-69, 182, 227-229 Continuous monitoring, 8-9 Continuous toxicological testing, 9-10 Control of Communicable Diseases Manual, 229 Co-precipitation, 62 Cost considerations, 10, 138, 180-181, 202, 224 Cryptosporidium, 77, 79, 82-86, 90, 96-99, 109-111, 119-120, 149, 210, 232-234 infectivity of, 131-134 need for data on, 96 reporting, 232-233, 235 testing for, 77 Cyanobacteria, 88 Cyclospora cayetanensis, 82-83, 86-87 Cytopathic effect (CPE), 119, 127 D Data. See Microbial data DBPs. See Disinfection by-products Decision paths, 10, 202 Decision-making. See Water agencies Degradation of samples over time, 179 Degraded water supplies. See Water supplies Demand. See Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD); Carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (CBOD); Chemical oxygen demand (COD); Water demand Denver's Direct Potable Water Reuse Demonstration Project, 9, 26-27, 48-50, 102-103, 166, 169-170, 178-180 Detection of emerging pathogens, 7 of etiological agents, 84 microbial methods of, 120-129 Detergent breakdown products, 64-67 Diarrhea, 82, 191-192, 232-233 "Brainerd diarrhea," 84 chronic, in AIDS patients, 87 Die-off rate, 93, 134-135 Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy, 125 Dilution, 215 providing for, 4-5, 17, 30 Dioxin, 179 Direct potable water reuse, 1, 21 Direct Potable Water Reuse Demonstration Project. See Denver's Direct Potable Water Reuse Demonstration Project Discharges. See Wastewater Diseases, 150. See also Microbial contaminants in reuse systems; Waterborne diseases; and individual diseases and pathogens measuring incidence of, 151 outbreaks of, 82, 86-87, 95, 208-210, 230 Disinfection by-products (DBPs) managing in reuse systems, 53-58 potential dangers from, 5 Disinfection processes, 17, 236. See also Chlorination processes; Oxidation processes; Ozone processes; Ultraviolet light (UV) processes Disposal. See Water disposal Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), 58 Distribution. See Water distribution District of Columbia. See Potomic Estuary Experimental Wastewater Treatment Plant Documenting chemical inputs, 4-5, 69 Dose-response curves, 130-131, 197 Drinking water. See also Water standards sources of, 17-18 judging new, 182-183 searching out, 3 selecting, 16-18 Drinking Water National Contaminant Occurrence Data Base, 7-8, 155

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--> E Early warning provisions, 13, 230 Ecologic studies. See Epidemiological evaluation Effluent, primary and secondary, microbial contaminants in, 90-92 Elderly. See Sensitive populations Emergencies. See also Response measures short-term, providing for, 16, 52 Emerging microbial contaminants, 6, 84-87, 110 detecting, 7 list of, 80-83 Endocrine disrupters, 68-69, 180, 187 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule, 119 Entamoeba histolytica, 79 Enteric pathogens, 74-77 bacterial, 77-79 list of, 75 protozoan, 79-82 viral, 80-83, 85, 96-99, 109-111 Enterococci, 89 as indicator bacterium, 127-128 Enterocytozoon bieneusi, 87 Enteroviruses. See Enteric pathogens, viral Environmental buffers, in reuse systems, 12, 211, 214-217, 237 health benefits of, 219 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 7, 27, 51, 77, 129 providing guidelines, 5, 31-35, 56, 227, 237 Epidemiological evaluation, 3-4 methods, 145-154, 157 recommendations concerning, 203-204 studies using, 11-12, 146-148, 190 Error, sources of, 152-154 Escherichia coli, 77-78, 128, 232 pathogenic, 6, 78, 108 reporting, 234-235 Estrogenic response, 184-186 Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), 59, 64 Etiological agents, detecting, 84, 148, 157 Evaluation, of contaminants, 118-157 Evaporation, low temperature, 61-62 Event chain analysis, 220-222 Excreta, human, 19 See also Coliform bacteria Experimentation. See Evaluation; Health and safety testing; Pilot plant studies Exposure assessment, 148-149 biomarkers of, 149-150 Exposure characterization, 131-135, 146 Extrapolating test results to human risks, 143-145 F False negatives, 8, 126, 203-204 False positives, 126 Fecal coliform bacteria. See Coliform bacteria; Escherichia coli Fecal-oral route of infection, 74 Federal guidelines, 18, 31-35 absence of enforceable, 42 Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, 140 Filtration. See also Membrane filtration processes; Sand filtration processes; Trickling filtration process; Ultrafiltration mixed media, 22, 25, 28, 165 sentinel parameters for, 222 Fish test, 9-10, 157, 182-189, 202 disadvantages of, 184 operational considerations, 10, 187-189 Flocculation, organic, 126 Florida. See also St. Petersburg reclamation facility; Tampa Water Resource Recovery Project Department of Environmental Protection (DEP), 41 water reuse requirements, 31, 38-41 Flow-proportioned composites, 224 Fluorescence. See Indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) assessment Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 140 Fred Hervey Water Reclamation Plant, 28 Free chlorine. See Chlorination processes G GAC. See Granular activated carbon Genetic polymorphisms, 150 Genotoxicity, 156 Giardia, 76-77, 79, 82, 86, 90, 93, 96-99, 109-111, 119-120 infectivity of, 131-134

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-->   need for data on, 96 reporting, 235 testing for, 77 Glutathione S-transferase theta 1 (GSTT1) gene, 150 Granular activated carbon (GAC), 22, 25, 30, 172, 236 residue analyses of, 60-61 Grit removal, 21 Ground water, 7, 214 recharging, 27, 32-33 Ground Water Recharge Using Waters of Impaired Quality, 118 Guidelines. See Drinking water; Federal guidelines; and individual guidelines and states H Haloacetic acids (HAAs), removing, 53-57 Haloacetonitriles, removing, 54 Hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) methods, 222 Health and safety testing, 3, 7-9, 118-157. See also Fish test biomolecular methods, 8 chemical methods, 8-9 comparative approach to, 16, 63-64 consequence-frequency approach to, 219-222, 241-247 difficulties with, 8-9, 67-69 extrapolating results to human risks, 143-145 false negatives in, 8, 126, 203-204 integrated approach to, 176-180 microbiological methods, 7-8 new approaches to, 182-183 Health maintenance organizations, data from, 232, 234 Health risks, 3-4, 15 See also Health and safety testing controlling adequately, 4 and population mobility, 199-200 studies of, 9-11, 15, 164-204 Heavy metals, removing, 21-22, 47 Helicobacter pylori, 80-81, 85-87 Helminths, 79 list of, 75 Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), 77-78 Hepatitis A virus, 83, 192 Hepatitis E virus, 84 Hospitals, data from, 234 Household chemicals, 4-5, 66 Human calcivirus, 80-81, 84 Human epidemiologic studies, 145 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 87 Human risks. See also Sensitive populations extrapolating test results to, 135, 143-145 Humus. See Aquatic humus Hyacinths. See Water hyacinths I Identification studies, 9, 173-174 Identifying health risks, ix. See also Health and safety testing Identity, loss of, 8, 218-219 Immune systems, people with suppressed. See Sensitive populations Immunomagnetic separation (IMS) techniques, 126 In vitro testing appropriate uses of, 10, 137-138, 141 limitations of, 8-9, 142-143, 201-202 In vivo testing, 9, 141 advantages of, 10 limitations of, 8-9 Indian Health Service, 234 Indicator microorganisms, 7, 90, 127-129 in fresh waters, 95 in secondary effluent, 94 Indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) assessment, 125-126 Indirect potable water reuse, 20-21 planned, 2, 3, 15 unplanned, 17-18 Industrial chemicals, 4 dealing with spills of, 52 quantifying, 5, 20 Industrial pretreatment programs, 5 Infectious disease agents. See Microbial contaminants in reuse systems; and individual pathogens Infiltration of water, rapid, 39-40 Information Collection Rule (ICR) of the EPA, 7, 96, 120 Injected water, 32-33, 40. See also Ground water fate of, 25 Inorganic chemical contaminants, 4 salts, 136

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--> Instability, biological. See Wastewater Integrated toxicological testing, 9-10 Intrusion of seawater, 25, 27-28 Ion exchange processes, 236 Isolating trace organic compounds, 61-63 Isospora belli, 87 L Labeling, 119, 126 Lag time following upstream wastewater discharges, 12, 217-218 Lagoons, 91, 97 Lake storage, 2 Latency, prolonged, 151-152, 200 Legionella, 76 Lime clarification, 25, 104 sentinel parameters for, 222 Live animal test systems, 9, 144. See also Fish test Longitudinal studies, 147-148 Long-term health risks. See Health risks Los Angeles County. See also Montebello Forebay project; Whittier Narrows Water Reclamation Plant (WRP) County Sanitation Districts (CSDLACs) of, 51 epidemiological studies in, 164-166, 169, 174-175, 192-200 generalizability of findings, 11 organic contaminants analyzed, 50-52, 58 Loss of identity of upstream wastewater discharges, 8, 218-219 M Macroreticular resins, 61-63 Mammalian cell transformation assay, 165, 170-171 Management. See Water management; Water treatment facilities Manufacturing water, 9, 157 See also Water storage; Water treatment Markers. See also Biomarkers for bacterial pathogens, 6 for wastewaters, 64 Mass spectrometry, 61, 63 Maximum contaminant levels (MCLs), 50, 129 See also National Primary Drinking Water Maximum Contaminant Levels Maximum tolerated dose (MTD), 179, 181 Measuring outcomes, 10-11, 150-152, 195-196 Medaka (fish), 184 Membrane filtration processes, x, 17, 61-62, 236 more research needed on, 8, 156 using chemical disinfectants along with, 6 Metals. See Heavy metals Methods for assessing health risks. See Health risks Microbial assessment, 3-4, 7, 129-131 improved, 76 studies using, 100-101 Microbial contaminants in reuse systems, 3-4, 6-7, 74-112 See also individual pathogens in ambient waters, 92-93 emerging, 6, 84-87, 110 evaluating, 118-135, 154-156 in primary and secondary effluent, 90-92 protecting public from, 12, 236 unidentified, 84-87 in untreated wastewater, 89-90 Microbial data, 93-108 needed from reuse project managers, 6 from non-potable applications, 96-101 from potable applications, 101-108 Microbial detection methods, 120-129 Micronucleus test, 170-171 Microscopy, 123 differential interference contrast (DIC), 125 Microsporidia, 87 Misclassification bias, 153, 200 Mobility of populations, 199-200 Molecular techniques, 124 Monitoring programs, 3-4 comprehensive, 26, 39 continuous, 8-9 in conventional water systems, 6 routine, 223-224 strategies for, 224 for treatment effectiveness, 5-6, 70, 222-227 Montebello Forebay project, 165-166, 192-194 Mortality and morbidity data, 195-197 MTD. See Maximum tolerated dose Mutagenicity, 9-10, 16, 141-143, 169, 174-176

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--> N National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations, 17 National Primary Drinking Water Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs), 41-42 National Research Council (NRC), 1, 11, 15-16, 118, 129, 136, 140-141, 178 protocols from, 9, 182 Natural inactivation, 93 Natural organic matter (NOM), 4, 59, 227-228. decomposibility of, 21 difficulty analyzing, 4, 58-59 dissolved, 22, 91 hydrophilic fraction of, 63 metabolic pathways for degradation of, 63 Natural processes, reducing contaminants through, 17-18, 92-93, 214-217 Natural surface water, 7 New York Department of Environmental Protection (DEP), 233 Nitrogen, removing, 46-47 Nonionic detergents, risks in reuse systems, 64-67 Nonpotable water reuse, 3, 14, 96-101 Norwalk virus, 83-84, 127 O Obligate human pathogens. See Viral pathogens Occupational exposures, 147, 152 Operators, training and certifying. See Water treatment facilities Orange County. See also Water Factory 21 health-effect studies in, 52-54, 164-165, 169, 174-175, 192-200 Orange County Water District (OCWD), 25, 101 Organic compounds, trace, 49 See also Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) Natural organic matter (NOM) Synthetic organic chemicals (SOCs) Total organic carbon (TOC) concentrating, 61-63 lists of, 60, 65-66 measuring, 4-5, 58-59 mixtures of, 7, 45-46, 59-63 reducing, 5, 36, 70 unidentified, 4, 5, 9, 55, 58-70, 135-136 Organic flocculation, 126 Osmosis. See Reverse osmosis (RO) processes Outcomes measurement, 10-11, 150-152, 195-196 Overdrafting, 25 Oxidation processes, 21, 53 advanced, 236 Ozone processes, 6, 30, 53, 177, 236 effectiveness for protozoa removal, 108 sentinel parameters for, 222 P Palo Alto treatment system, 52, 54 Parameters. See Sentinel parameters Parasites. See Protozoan parasites Pathogens. See Microbial contaminants; and individual pathogens Percolation processes, 37-38 maintaining proper conditions for, 28 surface, 27 Pestivirus, 80-81, 85 Phosphates, removing, 46-47 Physical treatment. See Primary water treatment Picornavirus, 80-81, 85 Pilot plant studies. See Denver's Direct Potable Water Reuse Demonstration Project; San Diego's Total Resources Recovery Project Pollutant source control programs, 5, 50-51 Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 179 Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 123-124 Populations mobility of, 199-200 sensitive. See Sensitive populations Potable water reuse. See Direct potable water reuse; Indirect potable water reuse; Nonpotable water reuse advanced treatment for, 101-108 and current drinking water standards, 18-20 planning for. See Proposed potable reuse projects safeguards needed, 14 Potomic Estuary Experimental Wastewater Treatment Plant, 16, 26-27, 53-54, 102-103, 164-165, 168, 176

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--> Precipitation. See Co-precipitation Preliminary screening, 21 Pretreatment programs, 5, 21, 30 Primary and secondary effluent, microbial contaminants in, 90-92 Primary water treatment, 21 Process trains. See Treatment trains Proposed potable reuse projects, 4-5, 111-112 managing, 6 plant-by-plant reviews, 9 Protozoan parasites, 6. See also individual parasites detecting, 121, 125-126 enteric, diseases from, 79-82 increased danger from, 6 list of, 75 microscopy for, 123 need for data about, 7 rate of removal by natural processes, 8, 155 Public health concerns over reclaiming water, 1, 3-4, 12 evolving over time, 179 importance of considering, 1, 6, 16 surveillance programs addressing, 12-13, 145, 229-238 Q Quality assurance issues. See Water quality Quality Criteria for Water Reuse, 1, 11, 16, 136, 141, 178 Quality spectrum, 19 R Raw water supplies, quality spectrum of, 19 Recall bias, 153-154 Recharging. See Ground water Reclaimed water, 14-71 See also Potable water reuse; Reuse systems; Water reclamation projects defining, 15 history of, 15, 25-31, 42 objections to use of, 18 public health implications of, 1 safety evaluations of, 135-136 solution of last resort, 3, 15 types of, 20-25 unidentified organic compounds in, 58-69 Recommendations, 4-13, 69-71, 109-112, 154-157, 201-204, 236-238 major, 3-4 Regulatory issues, 9 See also Drinking water; Federal guidelines; Water standards; and individual regulations Rejection of water See Water disposal Reliability issues, 3-4, 12-13, 15, 208-238, 243 importance of, 135 and performance evaluation, 3-4, 222-227 securing data about, 6 Reproductive outcomes, 16, 193, 200-201 Research needed, 4, 7-8, 55, 110 Reservoirs for storage, 2 Resins. See Macroreticular resins Response measures, 52, 225-226 Reuse systems. See also Nonpotable water reuse; Potable water reuse; Proposed potable reuse projects; Water reclamation projects; Water treatment facilities chemical contaminants in, 45-71 environmental buffers in, 211, 214-217 health-effect studies of, 164-204 microbial contaminants in, 74-112 reliability and quality in, 208-238 Reused water. See Reclaimed water Reverse osmosis (RO) processes, 22, 25, 30, 49, 62, 104, 107, 137, 236 sentinel parameters for, 222 Risk assessment, 3-4, 144 See also Contaminants; Health and safety testing; Health risks; Human risks; Sensitive populations; Water quality microbial, 129-131 steps in performing, 130 for unidentified trace organic compounds, 5, 227-229 Risk characterization, 10-11, 131-135, 176 Rotating biological contactors, 91 Rotavirus, 83 group B, 84 testing for, 77

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--> S Safe Drinking Water Act, 2, 5, 14, 31, 129 amendments to, 51 latest reauthorization of, 180 Safety evaluations. See also Health and safety testing future of, 180-182 inadequacy of current approaches, 9 progression in, 139-140 of reclaimed water, 135-136 Salmonella, 93, 174 culturing for, 77 infectivity of, 131-134 low levels of, 125 nontyphoid, 6, 78, 108 reporting, 235 S. typhi, 76 Salt River Valley, 28-29 Salt water. See Seawater intrusion Samples. See Water samples San Diego's Total Resources Recovery Project, 29, 47-49, 104-106, 164, 167, 170-172 conceptual design diagram of, 226 feasibility study for, 200-201 microbiological findings in, 126 Sand filtration processes, 97-100, 107, 214 Screening, physical. See Preliminary screening Screening studies, 141-143, 173-174 Seawater intrusion, 25, 27-28 Secondary effluent microbial contaminants in, 90-92, 94, 98 nitrification of, 27 Secondary infections, 133 Secondary water treatment, 5, 21, 241 water hyacinths in, 29, 86 Selection bias, 152-153 Sensitive populations, 8, 82, 133, 144, 155-156 Sensitivities, varying, 150, 196 Sentinel parameters, 12, 151, 222-223 Seroprevalence survey, 85 Settling out, 91 Sewage contamination, exposures to, 3, 17. See also Excreta, human Shigella culturing for, 77 reporting, 235 Short-circuiting, 12, 215-216, 237 Short-term emergencies. See Emergencies Silica, precipitation of, 62 SOCs. See Synthetic organic chemicals Soil aquifer treatment (SAT), 29, 219 Soil interaction effects, 4 Source control. See Pollutant source control programs Spikes, 50 See also Contaminant breakthroughs Spiking trials, 105 Spreading, 28 St. Petersburg (Florida) reclamation facility, 99-101 Stabilization ponds, 91 Standards. See Water standards State guidelines, 14 See also individual states Storage. See Water storage Streptococci, as indicator bacteria, 127 Subchronic toxicity, 16 Surface percolation. See Percolation Surface Water Treatment Rule, 95-96, 119, 129, 209 Surrogate parameters, 67-69 Surveillance programs strengths and limitations of, 234-235 uses of, 77, 230-232 and water reclamation, 12-13, 232-234 Susceptibility, biomarkers for, 149-150 Synthetic organic chemicals (SOCs), 5, 69, 117, 227-228, 237 T Tampa Water Resource Recovery Project, 9, 29-30, 47-52, 102-105, 164, 167, 172-180 Technology. See Water treatment Teratogenicity, 16, 170 Tertiary water treatment, 5, 21-25, 29, 58, 96 Testing water. See Health and safety testing Texas. See Fred Hervey Water Reclamation Plant Timing problems in safety testing, 181 Torovirus, 80-81, 85 Total organic carbon (TOC), 41, 67-68, 227-229 Total organic halogen (TOX), 41, 55-58 Total Resource Recovery Project. See San Diego Total suspended solids (TSS), monitoring, 39

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--> Toxic Substances Control Act, 140 Toxicological evaluation, 3-5. See also Genotoxicity central role in reclamation projects, 20, 140-142, 156-157 continuous, 10 information incomplete, 4, 135 integrated, 9-10 qualitative, 10 recommendations concerning, 201-203 reliable method needed, 67-69, 182 studies using, 9-11, 165-189 subchronic, 16 tiered tests, 16 Trace contaminants. See Contaminants; Organic compounds Training operators for water treatment facilities, 13, 235-236, 238 Transformation probability distributions, 244 Treatment. See Water standards; Water treatment Treatment trains, 99, 111, 170-172, 211-213 conceptual diagram of, 243 Trickling filtration process, 21, 53, 91, 104 Trihalomethanes (THMs), removing, 50, 53-57 Trout, 184 Typhoid fever, 76, 214 U Ultrafiltration, 30 Ultraviolet light (UV) processes, 53, 97, 236 Unidentified contaminants. See Contaminants; Microbial contaminants; Organic compounds Upper Occoquan Sewage Authority (UOSA) reclamation project, 30-31, 104-107 Upstream discharges. See Wastewater U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 26, 164 U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, xi U.S. Geological Survey, 62 Utility companies. See Water utilities V Vadose zones, 37-38 Variability, 219-220 securing data about, 6 Viability decisions. See Water agencies Vibrio cholerae O139, 84 Viral pathogens, 6. See also individual viruses culturing, 122, 127 detecting, 119, 121, 126-127 enteric, diseases from, 82-83 increased danger from, 6 list of, 75 need for data about, 7 studies of, 100 Virginia. See Upper Occoquan Sewage Authority (UOSA) reclamation project W Washington, D.C. See Potomic Estuary Experimental Wastewater Treatment Plant Wastewater. See also Advanced wastewater treatment (AWT); Reclaimed water; Water treatment; Water treatment facilities chemicals found in, 46 compared to natural water, 63-64 microbial contaminants in untreated, 89-90 municipal, reusing, 2 quality spectrum of, 19 research needed on, 4, 69 upstream discharges of, 2, 15, 217-219 Water agencies, 3-4 decision-making by, 4, 16, 42-43, 88-89 Water conservation, 3 Water courses for storage, 2 Water disposal, providing for, 12, 30, 237 Water distribution. See Reliability issues; Water utilities Water Factory 21, 22, 25, 27-28, 50, 53-54, 101-104 flow schematic for, 24 transformation probability distributions for, 244-245 Water hyacinths, in secondary water treatment, 29, 86 Water management, 1. See also Drinking water; Reclaimed water of chemical inputs to reuse systems, 50-53 of disinfection by-products to reuse systems, 53-58

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--> Water quality issues, 12-13, 208-238. See also Water standards Water reclamation projects. See Proposed potable reuse projects; Water treatment facilities; and individual reclamation projects chemical contaminants in, 45-71 microbial contaminants in, 74-112 monitoring, 223-224 role of toxicological testing in, 140-141 surveillance programs in, 232-234 Water Resource Development Act of 1974, 26 Water safety. See Health and safety testing Water samples, preparing, 180 flow-proportioned composites, 224 Water sources. See Drinking water Water standards, 18-20. See also Drinking water; Health and safety testing current, 3, 7, 70 developing more appropriate, 7, 9, 16, 109-110 Water storage, environmental, 1-2, 4, 214-217 amount needed, 225 protection provided by, 2, 9, 20-21 Water supplies augmenting, 34-35, 39 chemicals naturally present in, 4 degraded, 19 discharging wastewater into, 217-219 pristine, 74, 76 Water testing. See Health and safety testing Water treatment, 1, 3-4, 4, 21. See also Advanced wastewater treatment (AWT); Pretreatment programs; Water storage; Water treatment facilities; and individual processes advanced technologies for, 1, 21-29, 101-109 chemicals added or generated during, 4 conventional, 92 effectiveness of various levels of, 8 failures of, 208-209 modifying processes, 5 processes listed, 22-23 secondary or tertiary, 5, 21-22 using chemical with physical processes, 6, 109 Water treatment facilities. See also Response measures managing, 2 plant-by-plant reviews, 9 reclamation within, 2 training and certifying operators for, 13, 235-236, 238 Water utilities. See also Water agencies conventional, 2, 6, 17, 92 need for greater knowledgeability by, 20 using water with major wastewater components, 2, 18 Waterborne diseases, 74-88, 150 designating coordinator for, 233-234 dramatic decline in, 6 emerging, 80-83 link to infectious agents, 11 need for better data on, 7 Western Consortium for Public Health, xi Whittier Narrows Water Reclamation Plant (WRP), 27 Whole-animal testing. See In vivo testing Windhoek (South Africa) Direct Water Reclamation System, 25-26, 104-105, 164, 168, 190-192 Y Yersinia, 77, 125 Youths. See Sensitive populations