TABLE 3-1 Common Infectious Agents Potentially Present in Untreated Municipal Wastewater

Agent

Disease

Protozoa

 

  Entamoeba histolytica

Amebiasis (amebic dysentery)

  Giardia lamblia

Giardiasis

  Balantidium coli

Balantidiasis (dysentery)

  Cryptosporidium

Cryptosporidiosis, diarrhea, fever

Helminths

 

  Ascaris (roundworm)

Ascariasis

  Trichuris (whipworm)

Trichuriasis

  Taenia (tapeworm)

Taeniasis

Bacteria

 

  Shigella (4 spp.)

Shigellosis (dysentery)

  Salmonella typhi

Typhoid fever

  Salmonella (1700 serotypes)

Salmonellosis

  Vibrio cholerae

Cholera

  Escherichia coli (enteropathogenic)

Gastroenteritis

  E. coli 0157:H7 (enterohemorrhagic)

Bloody diarrhea

  Yersinia enterocolitica

Yersiniosis

  Leptospira (spp.)

Leptospirosis

  Legionella pneumophila

Legionnaire's disease, Pontiac fever

  Campylobacter jejuni

Gastroenteritis

Viruses

 

  Enteroviruses (72 types)

 

    Poliovirus

Paralysis, aseptic meningitis

    Echovirus

Fever, rash, respiratory illness, aseptic meningitus, gastroenteritis, heart disease

    Coxsackie A

Herpangina, aseptic meningitus, respiratory illness

    Coxsackie B

Fever; paralysis; respiratory, heart, and kidney disease

    Norwalk

Gastroenteritis

  Hepatitis A virus

Infectious hepatitis

  Adenovirus (47 types)

Respiratory disease, eye infections

  Rotavirus (4 types)

Gastroenteritis

  Parvovirus (3 types)

Gastroenteritis

  Reovirus (3 types)

Not clearly established

  Astrovirus (7 types)

Gastroenteritis

  Calicivirus (2-3 types)

Gastroenteritis

  Coronavirus

Gastroenteritis

 

SOURCE: Adapted from Hurst et al., 1989; Sagik et al., 1978.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement