TABLE 3-4 Emerging and Potential Waterborne Enteric Pathogens

Microorganism

Description

Clinical Syndrome

Calicivirus

Group of ''small round structured viruses" approx. 27-35 nm diameter, SSa RNA. Includes Norwalk virus, Snow Mountain virus, and Hawaii virus

Acute gastroenteritis, major cause of outbreaks of nonbacterial, acute gastroenteritis

Astrovirus

Small, round structured virus approx. 28-30 nm diameter, SS RNA, 7 serotypes

Acute gastroenteritis, mainly in children and the elderly

Enteric adenovirus

Approx. 70-80 nm diameter, DS DNAb virus, mainly serotypes 40 and 41

Gastroenteritis with duration of 7-14 days; associated with 5-12% of pediatric diarrhea

Enteric coronavirus

Between 100 and 150 nm diameter, enveloped SS RNA virus; major gastrointestinal pathogens of animals, putative enteric pathogens for humans

Acute gastroenteritis

Torovirus

Enveloped. Approx. 100-150 nm diameter, SS RNA viruses; well-established enteric pathogens for animals, putative enteric pathogens for humans

Acute gastroenteritis

Picornavirus

Approx. 25-30 nm diameter, double-stranded RNA viruses

Diarrhea

Pestivirus

Single-stranded RNA viruses

Pediatric diarrhea

Helicobacter pylori

Typically, curved, gram- negative rods 3 x 0.5µm, microaerophilic

Colonization of stomach causes persistent low-grade gastric inflammation; chronic infections may result in peptic ulcers and gastric cancer



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