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acquisition and the development of instructional materials and software, and her publications include the book, Beginning to Read: Thinking and Learning About Print. Beyond research, she has been involved in the development of a range of educational technology and materials. She is currently lead literacy advisor for ''Between the Lions," a public television program on literacy for children ages 4 to 8. She received the Sylvia Scribner award for outstanding contribution to research in 1995 for her work on reading and cognition. She has a Ph.D. in cognitive and developmental psychology from Brown University.

BARBARA T. BOWMAN is cofounder and president of the Erikson Institute in Chicago, Illinois, a graduate school and research center for advanced study in child development, affiliated with Loyola University Chicago. She is an authority on early education and a national advocate for improved and expanded training for practitioners who teach and care for young children. She has an extensive teaching background, having served on the faculty of the University of Chicago Laboratory School, Colorado Women's College, Nemazee School of Nursing, and the University of Shiraz (Shiraz, Iran), and, since 1966, as a faculty member of Erikson Institute. She is past president of the National Association for the Education of Young Children and has served on numerous national boards and advisory panels. Her most recent appointments include the Great Books Foundation and the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards. She holds a bachelor's degree from Sarah Lawrence College and a master's degree from the University of Chicago.

M. SUSAN BURNS is study director of the Committee on the Prevention of Reading Difficulties in Young Children and of the Committee on Early Childhood Pedagogy at the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council. She was formerly on the faculty at the University of Pittsburgh, involved in direct service research with young children with emotional and developmental disabilities and their families. Her research interests include literacy development in young children, special and early childhood education, child development, and assessment and implementation of in-



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