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FIGURE 3-1 Countries ranked by fourth-grade reading achievement (narrative score).
Note: The center solid bar indicates a confidence interval around the average reading
proficiency for a country. The 5th, 25th, 75th, and 95th percentiles are indicated by
shaded bars. Source: Elley (1992).

Identifying reading difficulties is essential for young school-age children, to ensure that intervention can be offered early and targeted to the children who need it most. However, this report on the prevention of reading difficulties also addresses prevention efforts that occur before formal instruction in reading. Therefore, we are interested in factors that predict later success and failure in learning to read. These predictors are addressed in the following chapter.

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