Page 415

Index

A

Abortion, see Spontaneous abortion

Acceptable daily intake, 72

Adenomas and adenocarcinomas, 11, 51, 213-237 (passim), 400

Adipose tissue, 7, 38, 70. 71, 80, 91, 99, 1 16, 246, 248, 250, 251-252, 258, 262, 272, 273

Adrenal gland, 7, 69, 188, 217-222 (passim), 225, 228, 229, 231, 232, 234, 236, 237, 238, 241

a-fetoprotein. 95, 114-115

Age factors. 69, 128, 129, 240-241, 414

breast cancer, 104, 245, 249. 263

breast milk, 90

dose-response assessment, 114. 115. 120

prostate cancer, 269

testicular cancer, 266, 268

see also Infants and children

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 72, 179

Agent Orange, 137, 138

Agricultural exposures. 138-139. 154. 206

free range farm animals, 170

see also Herbicides; Pesticides; specific herbicides and pesticides

Agricultural Market Survey, 74

Air pollution and monitoring, 60-61, 68, 70, 71-72, 74, 206

Aldrin, 6, 75, 90, 153, 186, 198, 211, 213-216

Alkylphenols, 34, 57, 58, 61-62, 77-78, 80, 128, 147-148

nonylphenols. 62. 63. 68. 77-78. 85. 101. 148

Alligators, 5, 7, 155-158, 290-292

Amphibian studies, 153-155, 307

Androgens, 12, 32, 50, 69, 109, 110, 120, 124, 157-158. 243. 297, 411

see also Antiandrogens; Testosterone

Angiogenesis, 108

Animal studies, 31, 273, 310

bisphenol A, 126-128, 139

breast milk, 86, 87, 90

butyl benzyl phthalate 129

carcinogenic effects, 5, 6, 7, 12, 107-108, 111, 115, 210-242

chlordecone, 123, 212

DBP, 129-131

DDE, 45. 121-122.211. 220 234. 241. 242

DDT, 6, 23, 121-122, 211, 221-224, 234-235, 241, 242

DES, 12. 111, 115, 119, 129, 157, 399

developmental and reproductive effects, 4, 18, 52, 96, 119-131 (passim), 139-140, 167-168, 169, 294

dose-response assessment, 109-110, 111 - 112, 113, 114-115

enzyme metabolism, 101, 105, 106

estrogens, general, 210, 235

extrapolation between species, 23-24, 52-53. 108-110, 117break



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Page 415 Index A Abortion, see Spontaneous abortion Acceptable daily intake, 72 Adenomas and adenocarcinomas, 11, 51, 213-237 (passim), 400 Adipose tissue, 7, 38, 70. 71, 80, 91, 99, 1 16, 246, 248, 250, 251-252, 258, 262, 272, 273 Adrenal gland, 7, 69, 188, 217-222 (passim), 225, 228, 229, 231, 232, 234, 236, 237, 238, 241 a-fetoprotein. 95, 114-115 Age factors. 69, 128, 129, 240-241, 414 breast cancer, 104, 245, 249. 263 breast milk, 90 dose-response assessment, 114. 115. 120 prostate cancer, 269 testicular cancer, 266, 268 see also Infants and children Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 72, 179 Agent Orange, 137, 138 Agricultural exposures. 138-139. 154. 206 free range farm animals, 170 see also Herbicides; Pesticides; specific herbicides and pesticides Agricultural Market Survey, 74 Air pollution and monitoring, 60-61, 68, 70, 71-72, 74, 206 Aldrin, 6, 75, 90, 153, 186, 198, 211, 213-216 Alkylphenols, 34, 57, 58, 61-62, 77-78, 80, 128, 147-148 nonylphenols. 62. 63. 68. 77-78. 85. 101. 148 Alligators, 5, 7, 155-158, 290-292 Amphibian studies, 153-155, 307 Androgens, 12, 32, 50, 69, 109, 110, 120, 124, 157-158. 243. 297, 411 see also Antiandrogens; Testosterone Angiogenesis, 108 Animal studies, 31, 273, 310 bisphenol A, 126-128, 139 breast milk, 86, 87, 90 butyl benzyl phthalate 129 carcinogenic effects, 5, 6, 7, 12, 107-108, 111, 115, 210-242 chlordecone, 123, 212 DBP, 129-131 DDE, 45. 121-122.211. 220 234. 241. 242 DDT, 6, 23, 121-122, 211, 221-224, 234-235, 241, 242 DES, 12. 111, 115, 119, 129, 157, 399 developmental and reproductive effects, 4, 18, 52, 96, 119-131 (passim), 139-140, 167-168, 169, 294 dose-response assessment, 109-110, 111 - 112, 113, 114-115 enzyme metabolism, 101, 105, 106 estrogens, general, 210, 235 extrapolation between species, 23-24, 52-53. 108-110, 117break

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Page 416 immunologic effects, 186-187, 188-189, 190-193, 196, 197, 198-208 maximum tolerated dose, 24, 239-240 methoxychlor, 122-123, 139 neurologic effects, 5, 125, 133, 171-172 octylphenol, 129, 139 PCBs: carcinogenic effects, 5, 6, 107-108, 211, 229-230, 236 developmental and reproductive effects, 4, 18, 124-125, 131, 294 neurologic effects, 5, 125, 133, 171-172 thyroid effects, 5, 150-151, 229-230, 236 TCDDs, 125-126, 211, 230-231, 236-237, 241, 242 vinclozolin, 123-124 see also Amphibian studies: Fish studies; Marine mammal studies: Wildlife studies Antiandrogens, general, 12, 13, 27, 45-46 carcinogenesis, 243, 272 developmental and reproductive effects. 120, 121, 130, 169 immunologic effects, 196 see also specific substances Antiestrogens, general, 12, 13, 27, 29, 31-32, 43, 49, 51, 64, 75, 106-107 carcinogenesis, 243-244, 259 developmental and reproductive effects, 120, 162-163 dose-response assessment, 113 see also specific substances Aromatase (CYP19), 102-103, 104, 105, 113 Aryl hydrocarbons, 27, 46-47, 102, 126 Asians, 245, 249, 250 Assays, see Bioassays Atmospheric monitoring. see Air pollution and monitoring Atrazine, 74, 139 ATSDR. see Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Australia, 72 Autoimmune diseases, 6, 187, 208 B Background concentrations, 8, 9, 69-70, 81 Bacterial kidney disease. 282 Baffin Island, 72 Baltic Sea, 6, 194, 207, 283-285. 294 B[a]P, see Benzo[a]pyrene Bayley Mental Development Index, 180 Bayley Psychomotor Development Index, 180 BBP, see Butyl benzyl phthalate B-cells, 189, 201 Bering Sea, 67, 294 Behavioral effects, 2, 6, 111, 171, 175, 181, 288 sexual behavior, 5, 125-126, 162-163, 170, 270, 406 see also Cognitive effects: Learning effects: Locomotor effects Belgium, 144, 145 Benzo[a]pyrene, 58, 85, 87 Bioaccumulation, see Food transfer and bioaccumulation Bioassays, 6, 9, 31, 33-38, 41-43, 71, 73, 95, 112, 117, 154, 196. 211-243, 296- 306, 309, 310, 412, 413 standardized. 299, 302, 412, 413. 414 Biologic markers, general, 7, 9, 42, 66, 79, 99, 110, 195, 207, 249, 273, 297, 306-308, 310, 413 Biomagnification, 158, 278, 279, 282, 293 Biphenyls, 34, 35, 44 Bird studies, 5, 7, 10, 21 concentrations of HAAs, 64. 65, 80 developmental and reproductive effects, 149, 158, 160-166, 168. 169, 285-289 dose-response assessment, 113 immunologic effects, 196, 207 Birth weight. 3-4, 133, 134-135. 168, 180 Bisphenol A, 38-39, 57, 68, 76-77, 80, 101, 120, 126-128, 211-212, 216-217 BKD, see Bacterial kidney disease Blacks: breast cancer 249, 250, 256 prostate cancer, 269, 270, 271-272 testicular cancer, 266, 267, 268, 272-273 Blastocysts, 105, 106 Bleached paper mill effluent. 152-153 Blood, 7, 9, 38, 116, 182, 207, 272, 273 breast cancer studies, 246, 249, 256, 259, 263 chlordecone, 137 dosimetry, general, 83, 85, 91, 92-96, 97. 273 endometrial cancer, 263 PCBs, 45, 72, 133, 175, 182, 246, 249, 256, 259, 263, 268, 272break

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Page 417 steroid transport, 103, 116, 308 TCDD, 137, 182, 268-269 testicular cancer, 268-269 Blue-sac disease, 4-5, 99, 151, 169, 282 Body weight, 75, 130, 302 birth weight, 3-4, 133, 134-135, 168, 180 bisphenol A, 126-127 breast cancer, 245, 249-250 breast milk, 90, 91 dose-response assessment, 111, 112 see also Birth weight Brain, 96-97, 99, 104, 116, 289 fetal, 105 hippocampus, 104 hypothalamus, 28, 96 pineal gland, 96 pituitary gland, 7, 28, 69, 96, 210, 215-238 (passim), 241 Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scales, 180 Breast cancer, 6, 7, 10, 31, 39-40, 43, 73, 104. 106, 107, 114, 116, 121-122, 126, 127, 135, 210, 213-232 (passim). 242, 244-263, 265-266, 272. 300, 400 age factors, 104, 245, 249, 263 blood measurements, 246, 249, 256, 259, 263 body weight, 245, 249-250 case-control studies, 246-258 ecologic studies. 262-263 Europe, 245, 250 occupational studies, 246, 258-261, 264 racial/ethnic factors, 245, 249, 250, 256, 263 regional factors, 245, 256 screening, 244-263 Breast milk, 6, 38. 71. 72. 73 carcinogenic effects, 268 developmental and reproductive effects. 128, 130, 131, 134-135, 136 dosimetry, 86, 87-91, 100, 111, 114 immunologic effects, 195-196 neurologic effects, 173, 175, 180, 182 ß-sitosterol, 5, 38, 85 Butyl benyl phthalate, 129, 211, 212, 217-218 C Canada, 140, 194 Inuits, 68, 72, 80, 195-196 Cancer, 2, 3, 6-7, 39-40, 44, 210-273 animal studies, 5, 6, 7, 12, 107-108, 111, 115, 210-242 antiandrogens, general, 243, 272 antiestrogens, general, 243-244, 259 breast milk, 268 cohort studies, 7, 248-249, 258-264, 268- 269, 271 DDE, 211, 220, 234, 241, 242, 243, 246-258 (passim), 262-263, 268, 269, 271-272 DDT, 6, 211, 221-224, 234-235, 241, 242, 243, 251, 253, 256, 257, 262-263 DES, 1, 10-12, 51 epidemiologic studies, 7, 140, 243-73 estradiol, 101, 106-108 estrogens, general, 210, 235, 243, 244, 248, 300, 249-250 PCBs, 5, 6, 105, 107-108, 211, 229-230. 236, 242, 243-244, 246-263 (passim), 268, 270-271, 272-273 reproductive organs, 211, 213-232, (passim). 244-273, 400-402: see also specific organs research methodology, 213-233, 244 steroids, general, 243, 244, 264, 272 TCDD, 23, 111-112, 125-126, 211, 230-231, 236-237, 241, 242, 243-244, 259-262, 264, 271, 273 see specific sites and cancer types Case-control studies, 273, 275 breast cancer, 246-258 testicular cancer, 268-269 Catecholestrogens, 104, 107-108, 109 Cell-mediated Immune response, 11, 23, 4-43, 51-52, 53, 187, 188-196 (passim . 199-202 (passim), 203, 205, 207, 208-209 B-cells, 189, 201 delayed -type hypersensitivity, 23, 111, 188, 194, 195, 202-203, 208 macrophages, 198, 202, 203, 207 T-cells, 107-196 (passim), 199, 201, 205, 208-209 Cell differentiation, 23, 119, 188, 302 Cell proliferation, 38, 41, 42, 43, 45, 50, 53, 107, 108, 110, 111, 114, 121-122, 210, 264, 299, 300 see also cancerbreak

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Page 418 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 263 chlordecone, 137-138 study at hand, 1, 12 Chalcones, 36 Chemical Manufacturers Association, 62 Children, see Infants and children China, 4, 173-175 Chloracne, 173, 259, 261 Chloramphenicol actyl transferase, 44, 45 Chlorbenzilate, 75 Chlordane, 60, 72, 75, 156, 202, 204-205, 206, 211, 241 Chlordecone (Kepone), 33, 38, 57, 59, 123, 137-138, 186, 198, 212, 218-219 Chlorine, 58, 62, 92-93, 152 see also Organochlorine compounds Chlorobiphenyls, 34, 91, 93 Chlorodibenzofurans, 136 Circulatory disorders, 139 Cognitive effects, 5, 133, 172-179 (passim), 182. 183-184 intelligence, 173, 174, 175, 176, 179, 183 learning effects, 6, 121, 125, 133, 171, 173, 174-177 see also Learning effects Cohort studies, 6, 273 cancer, 7, 248-249, 258-264, 268-269, 271 developmental and reproductive effects, 131-132, 134-135 neurologic effects, 172-184 PCBs, 131-132, 134-135 prostate cancer, 271 see also Occupational studies Colon cancer, 39, 245 Concanavalin A. 194 Conception, see Contraceptives; Fertility; Pregnancy Containers, food, see Packaging and containers Contraceptives, 8, 68, 78-79, 246, 265, 273 Corticosterone, 154 Coumestrol, 37, 40, 63 Cryptorchidism, 4, 5, 12, 139, 140, 166, 167, 169, 268, 401, 402, 405 Cyanazine, 139 CYP, see Cytochrome CYP11, see Side-chain-cleavage enzyme C'YP19, see Aromatase Cytochrome (CYP), 87, 93, 98-109 (passim), 113 D DBP, see Di-n-butyl phthalate DDD (1, 1 -dichloro-2, 2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)ethane), 97, 156, 211, 212, 234, 219-220, 290 DDE (1, 1-dichloro-2, 2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene), 3, 6, 33, 45-46 animal studies, 45, 121-122, 211, 220, 234, 241, 242 carcinogenic effects, 211, 220, 234, 241, 242, 243, 246-258 (passim), 262- 263, 268, 269, 271-272 developmental and reproductive effects, 120, 121, 122, 131, 134, 155, 156, 165-166, 168-169 dosimetry, 85, 90, 91, 92, 93, 97, 101 ecologic effects, 289, 290-291, 293, 294 exposure. 59, 63, 64 immunologic effects, 196 neurologic effects, 180-181, 183 DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane), 21, 33, 46, 301-302 animal studies, 6, 23, 121-122, 211, 221-224, 234-235, 241, 242 blood, 93, 256 carcinogenic effects, 6, 211, 221-224, 234-235, 241, 242, 243, 251, 253. 256. 257, 262-263 developmental and reproductive effects, 5, 6, 21, 120, 121-122, 131, 141, 149-151, 154-155, 156, 159, 161, 164, 165, 168, 169 pregnancy, 121, 131 dosimetry, 86, 91, 97, 99, 100 ecologic effects, 282, 290-291, 294 exposure, 59-60, 64, 65, 66-67, 68, 71-72, 74, 75, 80 food transfer/bioaccumulation, 68, 74, 91-92, 161-162 immunologic effects, 23, 186, 196-197 neurologic effects, 185 persistence, 58 production and use, 56, 57, 80 DEHP (diethylhexyl phthalate), 62, 78 Delayed-type hypersensitivity, 23, 1, 188, 194, 195, 202-203, 208 Demographic factors, 181, 293-294 urban areas, 140, 144, 145, 178, 183, 196. 253, 254, 257 see also Age factors: Racial/ethnic factorsbreak

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Page 419 Denmark, 140, 253, 257, 260, 264 Faroe Islands, 88, 90 Dental sealants, 39, 68 Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Market Survey, 74 Department of the Interior study at hand, 1, 12 U.S. Geological Survey, 62 DES, see Diethylstilbestrol Developing countries, 245 see also specific countries Developmental and reproductive effects, 1, 5, 8, 10, 18, 95-96, 119-170, 240-241, 302, 414 agricultural workers, 138-139 amphibians, 153-155, 307 antiandrogens, 120, 121, 130, 169 antiestrogens, 120, 162-163 animal studies, 4, 18, 52, 96, 119-131 (passim), 139-140, 167-168, 169, 294 amphibians, 153-155, 307 birds, 149, 158, 160-166, 168, 169, 285- 289 reptiles, 155-159 see also fish studies'' and "wildlife studies" infra Bisphenol A, 126-128 bleached paper mill effluent, 152-153 breast milk, 128, 130, 131, 134-135, 136 carcinogenic effects on reproductive organs, 211, 213-232 (passim), 244-273, 400-402; see also specific organs chlordecone, 123, 137-138 cohort studies, 131-132, 134-135 contraceptives, 8, 68, 78-79, 246, 265, 273 CYP enzymes, 105-106 DBP, 129-131 DDE, 120, 121, 122, 131, 134, 155, 156, 165-166, 168-169 DDT, 5, 6, 21, 120, 121-122, 131, 141, 149-151, 154-155, 156, 159, 161, 164, 165, 168, 169 DES, 1, 11-12, 51, 111, 114-115, 126, 127, 129, 157, 399-406 dibenzofurans, 134, 136, 159 polychlorinated dibenzofurans, 4, 5, 133, 134, 168 dioxins, 5, 91, 135, 136, 139, 150, 158-159, 164 embryos, 1, 51, 52, 86, 105, 157, 159, 164, 187, 288 estradiol, 123, 154, 157, 160, 163 estrogens, general, 119-120, 160, 164, 169, 307 fertility, 11-12, 16, 73, 121, 132, 138, 245, 246, 302, 402 time-to-pregnancy, 132, 146 fish studies, 4-5, 79, 147-153, 169 intersex conditions, 4, 79, 147, 159, 169, 307 Great Lakes studies, 133-134, 149-151. 158-159, 160-161, 162, 164, 165. 282-283 intersex conditions, 4, 79, 102, 147, 159, 163, 169, 187, 307 lactation, 6, 54, 66, 78-79, 100, 104, 111, 124, 127, 131, 245, 258; see also "breast milk " supra learning effects, 6, 121, 125, 133, 171, 173, 174-177 locomotor effects, 6, 121, 133, 135-136, 171, 175, 184 methoxychlor, 122-123, 169-170 monitoring, 5, 302, 307 octylphenol, 128, 148 organochlorine compounds, 155, 159, 162, 166, 179 PCBs, 4, 18, 120, 124-125, 131-135, 141, 149, 150, 157, 158-159, 164, 165, 168, 169-170, 173, 282, 285, 287-289, 292-294 PCDFs, 4, 168 receptor-mediated actions, 120, 121, 123, 124, 126, 136, 140, 160, 167 regional factors, 120, 133-134, 139, 140, 149-151, 158-159, 160-161, 168, 170; see also "Great Lakes" supra sewage treatment plant effluent, 4, 79, 147-148, 169 sex determination and ratios, 5, 98, 103, 104, 108, 113, 120, 130-131, 135, 160-162, 276, 285-286 sexual behavior, 5, 125-126, 162-163, 170, 270, 406 sperm and semen, 2, 4, 5, 10, 12, 17, 123. 126, 128, 129, 130, 133, 137-146 (passim), 167, 170, 402, 404, 405 spontaneous abortion, 11, 68, 133, 138-139, 266, 403, 406break

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Page 420 study at hand, methodology, 2, 3-4, 13, 14, 15 TCDD, 120, 125-126, 135-137, 149, 150, 151 teratogens, 12, 151, 288, 289 tributylin, 102 vagina, 1, 42, 51, 303, 304, 306, 400, 401 vinclozolin, 123-124 wildlife studies, 4, 7, 1, 120-121, 146-167, 168-170, 275, 282-295; see also "fish studies " supra see also Age factors; Birth weight; Eggs: Fetuses; Gonads; Growth effects; Ovaries and ovulation; Prostate gland: Pregnancy; Testes; Thyroid gland: Uterus DHT (5-dihydrotestosterone), 32 Diadzein, 55, 56 Dibenzofurans, 75, 134, 136, 159 polychlorinated dibenzofurans, 4, 5, 84, 94, 133. 134 Dichlorobiphenyl, 93 Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, see DDT Dichlorophenol, 34 Dicotol, 5, 74, 75, 155, 290-291 Dieldrin, 7, 34, 56, 72, 74, 75, 156, 159, 198, 199, 211, 213-216, 258, 293 Diet, see Food transfer and bioaccumulation Diethylstilbestrol (DES), 1, 10-12, 22-23, 48, 68, 79, 106, 126, 127, 157, 268, 399-406 animal studies, 12, 111, 115, 119, 129, 157, 399 carcinogenic effects, 1, 10-12, 51 developmental and reproductive effects, 1, 11-12, 51, 111, 114-115, 126, 127, 129, 157, 399-406 dose-response assessment, 22-23, 110, 111, 114-115 embryos, 1, 51 immunologic effects, 187, 399 occupational study, 406 Diethylhexyl phthalate, 78 Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), 57, 129-131 Dioxins. 4-5 developmental and reproductive effects, 5, 91, 135, 136, 139, 150, 158-159, 164 neurologic effects, 171, 182, 185 PCDDs, 94, 176, 181, 182, 289 see also TCDD DMBA (7, 12-dimethylbenzathracene), 237, 238, 240 DNA, 32, 47-49, 53, 107, 114, 301 Dose and dosimetry, 9, 82-118 breast milk, 86, 87-91, 100, 111, 114 defined. 54 PCBs, 84, 86, 88-90, 90, 91-94 (passim), 99, 125, 194 low-dose effects, 16, 113, 119 persistence, 9, 54-55, 58-59, 80, 81, 83, 85, 90, 94, 107: see also Food transfer and bioaccumulation see also Blood: Exposure: Target cells and organs Dose-response relationships, 9, 22-23, 82-83, 86-87, 109-115, 117, 118, 148, 172, 207, 303, 304, 310, 413 age factors, 114, 115, 120 animal studies, 109-110, 111- 112, 113, 114-115 antiestrogens, 113 body weight, 111, 112 defined, 82 DES, 22-23, 110, 111, 114-115 environmentally relevant doses, 16, 24-26 estradiol, 110, 111, 113, 114-115 estrogens, general, 112-113, 115 extrapolation across species. 109-110, 117 fetuses, 13 low-dose effects, 16, 113, 119, 128, 412-413 maximum tolerated dose, 24, 239-240 PCBs, 125 low-dose effects, 16, 113, 119 physiologically based pharmacokinetic model, 93-94 receptor-mediated actions, 110, 112-114 steroids, 110, 113 TCDD, 23, 111-112, 126 threshold concentrations, 113 see also Bioassays E Ecologic studies. 7-8, 138-139, 274-295 breast cancer, 262-263 DDE, 289, 290-291, 293, 294 DDT, 282, 290-291, 294 genetic effects, 278-279 Great Lakes, 281-283, 286-288, 292 PCBs, 282, 285, 287-289, 292-294break

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Page 421 prostate cancer, 271 -272 pyramid effects, 278 study at hand, methodology, 2, 3 TCDD, 282-283, 285 testicular cancer, 268-269, 272-273 see also Food transfer and bioaccumulation; Wildlife studies EGF, see Epidermal growth factor Eggs, 4, 5, 21, 64, 67, 86, 116, 149-150, 151, 156-157, 161, 165-166, 168, 169, 284, 285, 287, 290 Elimination of HAAs, 83-84, 116 see also Metabolism Embryos, 52, 86, 157, 159, 164, 187, 288 CYP enzymes. 105 DES, 1, 51 see also Fetuses Employee studies, see Occupational studies Endocrine disruptor hypothesis, general, 16-17, 20, 50 Endocrine Disruptor Screening and Testing Advisory Committee (EDSTAC), 9, 15, 17, 296, 410-414 Endometrial cancer, 7, 46-47, 125, 126, 135, 210, 211, 212, 214, 226, 228, 229. 232, 234-239 (passim), 242, 244, 263-265, 266, 272 Endosulfan, 6, 33, 56, 74, 75, 203, 206, 209, 211, 224, 235 Endothelial cells, 98-99, 104, 106, 203 Endrin, 75, 186, 198, 199, 211, 225-226, 235-236 England, 89, 293 Environmentally relevant doses, 16, 24-26 Environmental Protection Agency, 62, 155-156, 240-41, 292 Endocrine Disruptor Screening and Testing Advisory Committee. 9, 15, 17, 296, 410-414 prostate cancer. 271 study at hand, 1, 12 testicular cancer, 269 Enzymes, 32, 83, 87, 101, 152, 285, 306, 308 animal studies, 101. 105. 106 assays, 302 CYP, 87, 93, 98-109 (passim), 117 epithelial, 98-99 placental, 105 racial differences, 263 RNA transcription, 49 thyroid, 73, 101 Epidemiologic studies, 7, 135, 137, 170, 399-406 cancer, 7, 140, 243-273 chlordecone, 137-138 immunologic response, 208-209 neurologic effects, 172-185 sperm concentration, 140, 141-146, 170 see also Cohort studies; Ecologic studies: Occupational studies Epidermal growth factor, 42 Epithelial cells, 11, 50, 83, 86, 87, 98-99. 111, 123, 138, 188, 303 Equol, 37, 40, 41 Estradiol, 10, 40, 42, 45, 50, 69, 78, 79, 85, 94, 96, 107, 108, 300 carcinogenic effects, 101, 106-108 developmental and reproductive effects, 123, 154, 157, 160, 163 dose-response relationship, 110, 111, 113, 114-115 metabolism, 101, 102, 106-108 Estriol, 30, 31, 109, 110, 303-304 Estrogen responsive elements (EREs), 32, 47, 48 Estrogens, general, 4, 10-11, 18, 27, 38-53, 64, 94-95, 405, 411 animal studies, 210, 235 bioassays, 41-43, 235, 243, 297, 302. 303 biologic markers, 306-308 carcinogenic effects, 210, 235, 243, 244, 248, 300 catecholestrogens, 104. 107-108. 109 developmental and reproductive effects, 119-120, 160, 164, 169, 307 dose-response relationships. 112-113. 115 hormone replacement therapy, 246, 265, 273 immunologic effects, 187, 196 metabolism, 101-103, 106-107 pharmacologic, 8, 68, 78-79, 80 contraceptives, 8, 68, 78-79, 246, 265, 273 hormone replacement therapy, 246, 265, 273 see also Diethylstilbestrol: Estradiol phytoestrogens, 8, 40-41, 55-56, 68, 73, 80, 81, 95, 101, 273 receptor-mediated actions. 28-32, 110, 112- 114, 299, 300, 301, 412 see also Antiestrogens: Contraceptives: specific estrogensbreak

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Page 422 Estrone, 30, 31, 70, 79, 103, 108, 109, 147, 306 Estrus and menstruation, see Menstruation and estrus Ethnicity, see Racial/ethnic factors Europe, 7, 140, 143, 293 breast cancer, 245, 250 Scandinavia, 140 testicular cancer, 272 see also specific countries Exposure, 1, 8, 54-81, 84-91, 135, 136, 273, 306-308 agricultural, 138-139, 154, 170, 206 background concentrations, 8, 9, 69-70, 81 biologic markers, general, 7, 9, 42, 66, 79, 99, 110, 195, 207, 249, 273, 297, 306-308, 310 occupational, other, 258-261 DDT, 59-60, 64, 65, 66-67, 68, 71-72, 74, 75, 80 defined, 54 environmentally relevant routes of, 25-26 persistence, 9, 54-55, 58-59, 80, 81, 83, 85, 90, 94, 107: see also Food transfer and bioaccumulation testicular cancer, 268-269 see also Dose and dosimetry: Screening and monitoring F Faroe Islands, 88, 90 Fatty tissue, see Adipose tissue Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 410 Federal government, see Legislation; specific departments and agencies Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, 410 Fertility, 11-12, 16, 73, 121, 132, 138, 245, 246, 302, 402 time-to-pregnancy, 132, 146 see also Contraceptives: Sperm and semen Fetuses, 1, 38, 47, 116, 241, 310 CYP enzymes, 105, 106 dose-response assessment, 113 fetal alcohol syndrome, 105 resorption, 126 spontaneous abortion, 11, 68, 133, 138-139, 266, 403, 406 spontaneous death, 132 see also Embryos; Placenta Finland, 145, 146 Fish, consumption of, 3, 5, 6, 8, 10, 68, 69, 71, 72, 131-134, 165, 172-176, 181, 184, 287, 289, 292, 294 Fish studies, 1, 2, 7, 45, 281-285, 412 bleached paper mill effluent, 152-153 concentration of HAAs, 63-66, 67, 71, 73 cytochrome, 102 developmental and reproductive effects, 4-5, 79, 147-153, 169 intersex conditions, 4, 79, 147, 159, 169, 307 dosimetry, 85 salmon, 4, 5, 149-151, 169, 281, 282, 283-284 292 sewage treatment plant effluent, 4, 79, 147-148, 169, 281, 307 trout, 4-5, 45, 73, 79, 147, 148, 151, 282-283 see also Great Lakes; Marine mammal studies Flavanones, 36 Flavones and flavonoids, 36, 39-41, 43, 68, 73, 101, 102-103, 107 Florida panthers, 166-167, 169-170 Follicles and follicular cells, 137, 152- 153, 156-157, 213, 217, 218, 220-232 (passim). 237 Food and Drug Administration, 11, 241 Total Diet Study, 63, 75, 77 Food Quality Protection Act, 297, 410 Food transfer and bioaccumulation, 4, 8, 38-41, 43, 55-56, 63, 74-75, 80-81, 86, 91-92, 116, 174, 281-285 biomagnification, 158, 278, 279, 282, 293 bisphenol A, 38-39, 57, 68, 76-77, 80, 101, 120, 126-128, 211-212, 216-217 chlordecone, 123 DDT, 68, 74, 91-92, 161-162 fish, consumption of, 3, 5, 6, 8, 10, 68, 69, 71.72, 131-134, 165, 172-176, 181, 184, 287, 289, 292, 294 PBBs, 262 PCBs, 3-4, 68, 72, 131-134, 173, 282, 292-294 phytoestrogens, 8, 40-41, 55-56, 68, 73, 80, 81, 95, 101, 273 pyramid effects, 278 soy, 43, 56, 63, 73, 80, 81, 87, 90 TCDD, 136, 282 see also Ecologic studies; Milk; Packaging and containersbreak

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Page 423 Foreign countries, see Developing countries; Europe; specific countries France, 144, 145 Fungicides, general, 46, 55, 86, 87, 120, 123, 137, 138, 139, 167 see also specific substrances G Genetic effects, 5, 6, 28, 31, 42-43, 50, 299, 300-301 animal strains, 238-239 DNA, 32, 47-49, 53, 107, 114, 301 ecologic studies and, 278-279 extrapolation between species, 23-24, 52-53, 108-110, 117 mRNA, 27, 45, 49, 52, 104, 105, 106, 302 transcription, 27, 28, 43, 47, 49, 51, 115, 301, 302 RNA, 28 testicular cancer, 268 transfection, 43, 44 Genistein, 85, 98 Germany, 88, 177, 183, 184, 260 Gestation, see Pregnancy Gonadotropins, 87, 97, 98, 104, 152 Gonads, 28, 64, 67, 69, 99, 100, 152, 153, 159, 172, 412 morphologic abnormalities, 5, 79, 156 steroids, 17-18, 20, 157 see Ovaries and ovulation; Testes Great Lakes, 4, 7, 61, 62-63, 67, 71, 72 developmental and reproductive effects, 133-134, 149-151, 158-159, 160-161, 162, 164, 165, 282-283 ecologic studies, 281-283, 286-288, 292 immunologic effects, 189, 194 neurologic effects, 174, 177, 178-180, 183 Great Lakes embryo mortality, edema, and deformity syndrome, 165 Growth effects, 4, 31, 42, 50, 150, 154, 160, 282, 287, 293, 302 children and infants, 133, 134-135, 178, 403 dioxin, 5 egg and gonad size, 4, 152, 169 intrauterine growth retardation, 139 penis size, 5, 157, 158, 306-307, 401, 406 prostate gland size, 22, 11, 127 sex accessory gland size, 126 testes, 4, 126, 128, 129, 148, 169 transforming-growth factor, 42 tumors, 108, 126, 235 uterine, 43, 139, 303 see also Birth weight; Body weight H Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (HAHs), 46, 67, 93, 186, 188-196 see also Polychlorinated byphenyls: Polychlorinated dibenzofurans: TCDD Hazard quotients, 308-309 Heat-shock proteins, 42, 48-49 Hepatic system, 99, 103, 106, 109, 112, 122-123, 152, 156, 195, 235, 238, 242, 293 Heptachlorodibenzofuran, 75 Herbicides, general, 125, 138, 139, 260, 264 see also specific substances Hexachlorobenzene, 63, 134, 141, 181, 186, 203, 207, 251, 254 Hexachlorobiphenyl, 93, 124, 133 Hexachlorohexane, 59, 60, 100, 198, 248 Hexachloro-PCBs, 194 Hippocampus, 104 Hormone replacement therapy, 246, 265, 273 Human chorionic gonadotropin, 152, 153 Humoral immunity, 187, 189, 191, 192, 195, 196, 202, 203, 205, 206 Hyperpigmentation, 173 Hypospadias, 4, 5, 12, 78, 130, 139, 140, 167, 168, 170 Hypothalamus, 28, 96 I Immunologic effects, 2, 3, 6, 186-209 animal studies, 186-187, 188-189, 190-193, 196, 197, 198-208 bird studies, 196, 207 breast milk, 195-196 DDT, 23, 186, 196-197 DES, 187, 399 epidemiologic studies, 208-209 estrogens, general, 187, 196 Great Lakes, 189, 194 humoral immunity, 187, 189, 191, 192, 195, 196, 202, 203, 205, 206break

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Page 424 infants and children, 195-196 infectious diseases, 187, 190, 191, 194, 195, 270, 282 , 294 organochlorine compounds, general. 194, 198 PCBs, 6, 188, 191, 192, 194, 195-196, 207, 208, 288, 294 pregnancy, 187, 203, 205 TCDD, 111, 188-189, 190-191, 193, 196 wildlife studies, 6, 189, 194, 196, 207 see also Bioassays; Cell-mediated immune response India, 71 Indolo[3, 2-b]carbazole, 37 Infants and children, 5, 70, 71, 73, 74-75, 78, 80, 81, 116, 134 birth weight, 3-4, 133, 134-135, 168, 180 fetal alcohol syndrome, 105 immunologic effects, 195-196 neurologic effects, 172, 173, 174-183; see also Cognitive effects testicular cancer, 268 see also Breast milk; Fetuses Infectious diseases, 187, 190, 191, 194, 195, 270, 282, 294 Inhalation exposure: smoking, 105, 182 see Air pollution and monitoring; Lungs; Respiratory system Insecticides, see Pesticides; specific substances Instrumental chemical techniques, 308-309 Intelligence, 173, 174, 175, 176, 179, 183 see also Cognitive effects; Learning effects International Agency for Research on Cancer, 235, 236, 237, 238, 242, 260 International perspectives, see Developing countries; Europe; Regional factors; specific countries Intersex conditions, 4, 79, 102, 147, 159, 163, 169, 187, 307 Intrauterine growth retardation, 139 Inuits, 68, 72, 80, 195-196 In vitro fertilization and embryo transfer, 141 Isoflavones and isoflavonoids, 36, 55, 56, 63, 73 Italy, 135, 259, 261-262, 264, 271 J Japan, 4, 140, 172, 173-174, 245 K Kenya, 88 Kepone, see Chlordecone Kidneys, 30, 93, 128, 130, 282 L Laboratory studies, see Animal studies Lactation, 6, 54, 66, 78-79, 100, 104, 111, 124, 127, 131, 245, 258 see also Breast milk Larvae, 86, 105 Learning effects, 6, 121, 125, 133, 171, 173, 174-177 Legislation, 297, 410 Life-history models, 274 Ligands, 28-32 (passim), 40, 47, 48-49, 114, 298 Lindane. 6, 34, 74, 198, 202, 209, 211, 226-228, 236 Lipoproteins, 8, 38, 64, 83, 88-89, 94, 99, 116 Liver, see Hepatic system Locomotor effects, 6, 121, 133, 135-136, 171, 175, 184 Bayley Psychomotor Development Index, 180 Lungs, 71-72, 87, 93, 203, 237, 245. 261 Luteinizing hormone, 44, 137 Lymphatic system, 187-188, 190-191, 199, 202, 204, 205, 207, 208 see also T-cells M Macrophages, 198, 202, 203, 207 Mammary gland, 104, 126, 213-238 (passim), 241 see also Breast cancer; Breast milk; Lactation Mammography, 245-246 Marine mammal studies, 92, 294-295 concentrations of HAAs, 64, 65, 66, 72, 80, 90, 99, 196 dosimetry, 86 immunologic effects, PCBs, 6, 194, 196, 207, 208 Maximum tolerated dose, 24, 239-240 Menopause, 78, 79, 245, 251, 273 hormone replacement therapy, 246, 265, 273break

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Page 425 Menstruation and estrus, 69, 122, 123, 124, 132, 264-265, 250-251, 264, 303 see also Ovaries and ovulation Mental Development Index, see Bayley Mental Development Index Meselson-Stahl demonstration, 19 Mestranol, 68, 78 Metabolism, 8, 28, 54, 83-84, 86, 90-91, 98-109, 117, 123, 160, 165 cytochrome (CYP), 87, 93, 98-109 (passim), 113 estradiol, 101, 102, 106-108 estrogens, general, 101-103, 106-107 PCBs, 102. 104 steroids, 101-103, 105-109, 117 thyroxin, 124-125 see also Enzymes Methodology, see Research methodology Methoxychlor, 33, 74, 75, 122-123, 169-170, 211, 228-229, 236, 241 Methylsulfonyl, 88, 90-91, 101 Metolachlor, 139 Michelson-Morely experiment, 19 Milk: bovine milk, 87, 90, 116, 136 soy-based substitutes, 43, 56, 63, 73, 80, 81, 87, 90 see also Breast milk Minks, 7, 288-289 Minority groups, see Racial/ethnic factors: specific groups Mirex, 164, 254, 258 Miscarriage, see Spontaneous abortion Monitoring, see Screening and monitoring Mortality data, 173, 190, 192, 258-259, 260, 261, 263, 266, 269, 270-271, 282 mRNA, 27, 45, 49, 52, 104, 105, 106, 302 transcription, 27, 28, 43, 47, 49, 51, 115, 301, 302 Müllerian-inhibiting hormone, 160, 167 Musculoskeletal disorders, 139 N Naringenin, 43, 44 National Cancer Institute, 234-239 (passim), 241 SEER program, 265 National Center for Health Statistics, 138 National Human Monitoring Program, 99 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 137 National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 154, 260 National Toxicology Program, 129 Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale, 181 Netherlands, 88-89, 134-135, 176, 182-183, 184, 195, 293, 294 Neurologic effects, 5-6. 50. 99. 171-185 animal studies, 5, 125, 133, 171-172 breast milk, 173, 175, 180, 182 cognitive effects, 5, 133, 172-179 (passim), 182, 183-184 intelligence, 173, 174, 175, 176, 179, 183 learning impairments, 6, 121, 125, 133, 171. 173. 174-177 cohort studies, 172-184 DDE, 180-181, 183 DDT, 185 dioxins, 171, 182, 185; see also "TCDD" infra epidemiologic studies, 172-185 Great Lakes, 174, 177, 178-180, 183 infants and children, 172, 173, 174-183: see also, "cognitive effects" supra locomotor effects, 6, 121, 133, 135-136, 171, 175, 180, 184 PCBs, 5, 125, 133, 171-185 regional factors, 172-184; see also "Great Lakes" supra standards, 185 study at hand, methodology, 2, 3, 14 TCDD, 135-136 see also Behavioral effects; Brain Nonylphenol ethoxylates, 58, 62, 63, 101, 148 Nonylphenols, 62, 63, 68, 77-78, 85, 101, 148 Norway, 88 Nutrition, see Food transfer and bioaccumulation O Occupational studies, 137, 198 agricultural exposures, 138-139, 154, 206 breast cancer, 246, 258-261, 264 chlordecone, 137-138 DES, 406 endometrial cancer, 264 prostate cancer, 270-271, 273break

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Page 426 testicular cancer, 268 Vietnam veterans, 137, 138, 257, 269 Octylphenol, 128, 148 Organochlorine compounds, general, 33-34, 38, 47, 59-60, 72, 91-92 carcinogenic effects, 248, 249-250 developmental and reproductive effects, 155, 159, 162, 166, 179 neurologic effects, 186 immunologic effects, 194, 198 see also specific compounds Organohalogen compounds, 164 see also specific compounds Ovaries and ovulation, 52, 86, 102, 121, 122, 130, 157, 164, 218, 220, 224, 226, 229-238 (passim). 241. 400 see also Menopause; Menstruation and testrus P Packaging and containers: bisphenol A, 38-39, 57, 68, 76-77, 80, 101, 120, 126-128, 211-212, 216-217 butyl benzyl phthalate, 129 other HAAs, 78 PB-PK, see Physiologically based pharmacokinetic model PCBs, see Polychlorinated biphenyls Peer review, 18, 19 Penis, 5, 102, 126, 133, 157, 158, 167, 169, 405 hypospadias, 4, 5, 12, 78, 130, 139, 140, 167, 168, 170 preputial gland, 127, 129 size, 5, 157, 158, 306-307, 401, 406 Pentachlorobiphenol, 84, 92, 93, 97, 125, 133 Pentachlorophenol, 75 Persistence 9, 54-55, 58-59, 80, 81, 83, 85, 90, 94, 107 see also Food transfer and bioaccumulation Pesticides, 38, 56, 58, 74-75, 81, 91-92, 97, 158, 179, 198, 242 see also specific substances Pharmacokinetics, 38, 86, 87, 93-94, 96, 97, 98, 117. 297, 299, 302 Pharmacologic agents, 8, 68, 78-79, 80 contraceptives, 8, 68, 78-79, 246, 265, 273 hormone replacement therapy, 246, 265, 273 see also Diethylstilbestrol; Estradiol Phenolic compounds, 38 alkylphenols, 34, 57, 58, 61-62, 77-78, 80. 128, 147-148 nonylphenols, 62, 63, 68, 77-78, 85, 101, 148 see specific substances Phthalates, 38, 58, 62, 78, 120, 129-131, 153, 211, 212, 242 Physiologically based pharmacokinetic model, 93-94 Phytoestrogens, 8, 40-41, 55-56, 68, 73, 80, 81, 95, 101, 273 Phytohemagglutinin, 189, 194, 195, 202 Pineal gland, 96 Pituitary gland, 7, 28, 69, 96, 210, 215-238 (passim), 241 Placenta, 8, 47, 97-98, 105, 116, 173, 175, 180-181 Plaque-forming cells (PFC), 196, 198 Plasma-binding proteins, 94-95, 96, 116, 127, 157, 301 Pokeweed mitogen, 195 Polybrominated biphenyls, 262 Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 3, 5, 34, 38, 45 animal studies: carcinogenic effects, 5, 6, 107-108, 211, 229-230, 236 developmental and reproductive effects, 4, 18, 124-125, 131, 294 neurologic effects, 5, 125, 133, 171-172 thyroid effects, 5, 150-151, 229-230, 236 blood concentrations, 45, 72, 133, 175, 182, 246, 249, 256, 259, 263, 268, 272 carcinogenic effects, 5, 6, 105, 107-108, 211, 229-230, 236, 242, 243-244, 246-263 (passim), 268, 270-271, 272-273 cohort studies, 131-132, 134-135 developmental and reproductive effects, 4. 18, 120, 124-125, 131-135, 141, 149, 150, 157, 158-159, 164, 165, 168, 169-170, 173, 282, 285, 287-289, 292-294 dosimetry, 84, 86, 88-90, 90, 91-94 (passim), 99, 125, 194 low-dose effects, 16, 113, 119 ecologic effects, 282, 285, 287-289, 292-294 exposure. 60-61, 62, 64-67, 70, 71, 72, 75, 80break

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Page 427 food transfer and bioaccumulation, 3-4, 68, 72, 131-134, 173, 282, 292-294 hexachloro-PCBs, 194 immunologic effects, 6, 188, 191, 192, 194, 195-196, 207, 208, 288, 294 marine mammals, 6, 194, 196, 207, 208 metabolic processes, 102, 104 neurologic effects, 5, 125, 133, 171-185 persistence, 58-59, 85 pregnancy, 124-125 production and use, 56, 57, 80 thyroid gland, 5, 150-151, 229-230, 236 Polychlorinated diaromatic hydrocarbons (PCHDs), 283 Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), 4, 5, 84, 94, 168, 174, 182, 185, 289 Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), 94, 176, 181, 182, 289 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 104 Polymerase chain reaction techniques, 28, 51-52, 105 Pregnancy, 54, 95, 231, 403, 404 bisphenol A, 126, 127 DBP, 130-131 DDT, 121, 131 embryos, 1, 51, 52, 86, 105, 157, 159, 164, 187, 288 immunologic effects, 187, 203, 205 intrauterine growth retardation, 139 PCBs, 124-125 placenta, 8, 47, 97-98, 105, 116, 173, 175, 180-181 spontaneous abortion, 11, 68, 133, 138-139, 266, 403, 406; see also Diethylstilbestrol time-to-pregnancy, 132, 146 see also Fetuses Preputial gland, 127, 129 Progesterone, 11, 42, 43, 69-70, 152, 165, 245, 264, 265, 300 see also Contraceptives Prostate gland, 111, 112, 121, 127, 128, 402 cancer, 7, 39-40, 222, 224, 229, 232-239 (passim), 269-272, 273, 401 age factors, 269 cohort studies, 271 ecologic studies, 271-272 occupational exposures, 270-271, 273 racial/ethnic factors, 269, 270, 271-272 screening, 269-270, 271 size, 22, 111, 127 Psychomotor Development Index, see Bayley Psychomotor Development Index Psychomotor effects, see Locomotor effects Q Quercetin, 44 R Racial/ethnic factors, 72 Asians, 245, 249, 250 breast cancer, 245, 249, 250, 256, 263 concentrations of HAAs, 268 Inuits, 68, 72, 80, 195-196 prostate cancer, 269, 270, 271-272 testicular cancer, 266, 267, 268, 272-273 see also Blacks: Whites Receptor-mediated actions, 3, 8, 21-22, 27, 28-37, 40-41, 43-53, 82, 116, 117, 298-300 carcinogenic effects, 248 developmental and reproductive effects, 120, 121, 123, 124, 126, 136, 140, 160. 167 dose-response relationship, 110, 112-114 estrogens, general, 28-32, 110, 112-114, 299, 300, 301, 412 immunologic effects, 186 ligands, 28-32 (passim), 40, 47, 48-49, 114, 298 retinoids, 18, 47 steroids, 28, 32, 41, 42, 48, 52, 94-95, 96, 116, 186 thyroid, 18 Redox cycling, 107, 108, 117 Reference standards, 308-309 Registry for Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Genital Tract in Young Females, 11 Regional factors, 5, 279, 292-293 breast cancer, 245, 256 concentrations of HAAs, 64, 65, 72, 88-89 developmental and reproductive effects, 120, 133-134, 139, 140, 149-151, 158-159, 160-161, 168. 170 Great Lakes studies, 133-134, 149-151, 158-159, 160-161, 162, 164, 165, 282-283 neurologic effects. 172-184 Great Lakes, 174, 177, 178-180, 183break

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Page 428 persistence. 58 sperm concentration, 4, 5, 142-144 wildlife exposure, 63-64 see also Great Lakes; International perspectives; specific countries Reptile studies, 5, 7, 103, 155-159, 288, 290-292 Research methodology, 170 carcinogenic effects, 213-233, 244 definition of HAA, 21-22 extrapolation between species 23-24, 52-53, 108-110, 117 neurologic effects, 179 peer review, 18, 19 sperm concentration studies, 141-144, 146 study at hand, 1-3. 12-16. 18-26 see also Animal studies; Case-control studies; Cohort studies; Ecologic studies; Epidemiologic studies; Occupational studies; Screening and monitoring; Wildlife studies Respiratory system, 86, 116, 129, 139, 195 smoking, 105, 182 see also Lungs Retinoids, 18, 47 Risk management, 2, 14 River otters, 7, 292-293, 294 RNA, 28 see also mRNA S Safe Drinking Water Act, 297, 410 Salmon, 4, 5, 149-151, 169, 281, 282, 283-284, 292 Scandinavia. 130 see also specific countries Scotland, 144, 145 Screening and monitoring, 8-9, 59-67, 81, 243-273. 296-414 breast cancer, 244-263 committee recommendations, 5-9 (passim). 310, 413-414 Endocrine Disruptor Screening and Testing Advisory Committee, 9, 15, 17, 296, 410-414 polymerase chain reaction techniques, 28, 51-52, 105 prostate cancer, 269-270, 271 soil and soil monitoring, 62-63, 70, 123 see also Air pollution and monitoring; Bioassays; Dosimetry; Dose-response relationships; Exposure Seasonal factors, 58 conception, time of, 139 SEER, see Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program Semen, see Sperm and semen Seminal vesicle, 121 Sewage treatment plant effluent, 4, 79, 147-148, 169, 281, 307 Sex determination and ratios, 5, 98, 103, 104, 108, 113, 120, 130-131, 135, 160-162, 276, 285-286 Sexual behavior, 5, 125-126, 130, 170, 270, 406 Sheep red blood cells, 188-189, 200 Side-chain-cleavage enzyme (CPY11), 102, 105 Sitosterol, 5, 38, 85 Skin and skin reactions, 42, 55, 86, 92, 116, 133, 173, 189, 195, 196, 208, 237, 259, 261, 272 Smoking, 105, 182 Society for the Plastics Industry, 76-77 Soil and soil monitoring, 62-63, 70, 123 Soy-based foods, 43, 56, 63, 73, 80, 81, 87, 90 Sperm and semen, 2, 4, 5, 10, 12, 17, 123, 126, 128, 129, 130, 133, 137-146 (passim), 167, 17, 402, 404, 405 epidemiologic studies, 140, 141-146, 170 regional factors, 4, 5, 142-144 research methodology. 141-144. 146 Spleen, 188, 192, 198, 204, 206 Spontaneous abortion, 11, 68, 133, 138-139, 266, 403, 406 see also Diethylstilbestrol Standards: acceptable daily intake, 72 bioassays, 297, 302, 309, 310, 412, 413, 414 environmentally relevant doses, 16, 24-26 maximum tolerated doses, 24, 239-240 neurologic effects, 185 reference standards, 308-309 see also Biologic markers, general Steroids, general, 43, 116, 152, 167, 172, 186-187, 290, 301, 307, 308, 412 background concentrations, 69 blood, transport of, 103, 116, 308 carcinogenesis, 243, 244, 264, 272 dose-response assessment, 110, 113 gonadal, 17-18, 20, 157 metabolism, 101-103, 105-109, 117 placental, 105break

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Page 429 plasma-binding proteins, 94-95, 96, 116, 127, 157, 301 receptor-mediated actions, 28, 32, 41, 42, 48, 52, 94-95, 96, 116, 186 target cells and organs, 101-102, 103 see specific steroids St. Lawrence River, 58, 63, 66, 67, 158, 179, 183, 194, 294 Stomach, 39, 203, 262 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program, 265 Sweden, 88, 90-91 T Taiwan, 4, 173-175 Tamoxifen, 31, 50, 51, 52-53, 115 Target cells and organs, 28, 30, 38, 42, 43, 45, 46, 47, 50, 92, 98-99, 116, 272, 300 steroid metabolism, 101-102, 103 TCDD (2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin), 6, 18, 23, 46, 75 Agent Orange, 137, 138 animal studies, 125-126, 211, 230-231, 236-237, 241, 242 blood, 137, 182, 268-269 carcinogenic effects, 23, 111-112, 125-126, 211, 230-231, 236-237, 241, 242, 243-244, 259-262, 264, 271, 273 developmental and reproductive effects, 120, 125-126, 135-137, 149, 150, 151 dosimetry, 85, 88-89, 93, 94, 98-99, 104, 110 dose-response relationships, 23, 111-112, 126 ecologic effects, 282-283, 285 food transfer and bioaccumulation, 136, 282 immunologic effects, 111, 188-189, 190-191, 193, 196 neurologic effects, 135-136 thyroid gland, 136 T-cells, 187-196 (passim), 199, 201, 205, 208-209 Teratogens, 12, 151, 288, 289 Testes, 121, 123, 131, 138, 147, 167, 401-402, 404, 412 cryptorchidism, 4, 5, 12, 139, 140, 166, 167, 169, 268, 401, 402, 405 growth, 4, 126, 128, 129, 148, 169 see also Sperm and semen Testicular cancer, 4, 7, 139, 140, 214-219 (passim), 222, 223, 227-239 (passim), 241, 242, 266-269, 272-273, 401, 404 age factors, 266, 268 racial/ethnic factors, 266, 267, 268, 272-273 blood, 268-269 case-control studies, 268-269 ecologic studies, 268-269, 272-273 Testosterone, 32, 46, 137, 140, 152, 154, 157, 162, 239, 406 Tetrachlorobiphenyls, 97, 98 Therapeutic agents, see Pharmacologic agents Thiamine, 285 Thymus, 188, 190, 193, 206, 219, 220, 221 Thyroid gland, 7, 18, 75, 154, 210, 215. 217, 220, 221, 222, 226-238 (passim), 241, 411, 412 enzymes, 73, 101 PCBs, 5, 150-151, 229-230, 236 receptor-mediated actions, 28, 32, 47, 172 TCDD, 136 Thyroxine, 47, 124-125, 136, 150-151 Tissue sensitivity, 9, 38, 47, 53, 59, 83, 298, 300, 307-308, 310, 413 see also Adipose tissue T lymphocytes, see T-cells Tobacco, see Smoking Toxicokinetics, 83, 135 Toxic Substances Control Act, 410 Total Diet Study (FDA), 63, 75, 77 Toxaphene, 33, 56, 75, 90, 155, 156, 202-203, 211, 231-232, 237-238 Transcription, 27, 28, 43, 47, 49, 51, 115, 301, 302 Transfection, 43. 44 Transforming-growth factor, 42 Tributylin. 102 Trout, 4-5, 45, 73, 79, 147, 148, 151, 282-283 Turtles, 7, 103, 159, 288 U United Kingdom, 89, 146, 147-148, 293 England, 89, 293 Scotland, 144, 145 Uptake of HAAs, 83-84, 116 see also Metabolism Urban areas, 140, 144, 145, 178, 183, 196, 253, 254, 257 Urinalysis, 55, 138break

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Page 430 U.S. Geological Survey, 62 Uterus, 42, 43, 44, 45, 95, 96, 111, 114, 121, 130, 139, 214, 215, 218, 220, 227, 230, 232, 234-238 (passim), 245, 303-306, 400, 412 see also Endometrial cancer V Vagina, 11, 42, 51, 303, 304, 306, 400, 401 Vietnam veterans, 137, 138, 257, 269 Vinclozolin, 46, 74, 75, 123-124, 167 Vitellogenin, 4, 42, 45, 48, 73, 79, 148, 154-155, 306, 308 W Water pollution, 5, 59, 68, 70, 72 amphibians, 153-155, 307 Baltic Sea, 6, 194, 207, 283-285, 294 Bering Sea, 67, 294 concentrations of HAAs, 60-62, 68, 77-78 bleached paper mill effluent, 152-153 herbicide contamination, 139 reptiles, 5, 7, 103, 155-159, 290-292 river otters, 7, 292-293, 294 sewage treatment plant effluent, 4, 79, 147-148, 169 St. Lawrence River, 58, 63, 66, 67, 158, 179, 183, 194, 294 see also Fish studies; Great Lakes; Marine mammal studies Whites: breast cancer, 249, 250, 256, 263 neurological effects, 178, 180 prostate cancer, 269, 270, 271-272 testicular cancer, 266. 268, 272-273 Wildlife studies, 1, 7-8, 9, 79, 275-276, 281-295, 302, 310, 413 developmental and reproductive effects. 4. 7, 10, 120-121, 146-167, 168-170, 275, 282-295 exposure, 63-67 immunologic effects, 6, 189, 194, 196, 207 study at hand, methodology, 1-2, 3 see also Bird studies; Fish studies; Marine mammal studies; Reptile studies Z Zearalanol, 37, 40 Zearalenol, 40, 101, 102 Zearalenone, 37, 40, 63, 68, 85, 86, 101-102 Zona radiata proteins, 306, 308