Index

A

Acerina cernua, 58

Acipenser transmontanus, 61

Action approach, 114-116

Adaptive management, 112, 125

Alewife, 57

Algal blooms, 58

Allocation systems, 74

Alosa pseudoharengus, 57

A. sapidissima, 11

American eel, 61

American lobster, 61

American sand lance, 44

American shad, 11

Ammodytes americanus, 44

A. hexapterus, 45

Anguilla americanus, 61

Animal feed, 1, 21

Anoplopoma fimbria, 31

Anthropogenic impacts, 13, 63

Aphanopus carbo, 49

Aquaculture, 3, 20.

See also Mariculture

Arctica islandica, 101

Asian clam, 59

Assignment of rights, 8

to communities, 10

Atlantic cutlassfish, 27

Atlantic halibut, 11, 16, 27

Atlantic mackerel, 27

Atlantic pollock, 27

Atlantic salmon, 11

Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission, 80

B

Baleen whales, 45, 47, 71

Barents Sea ecosystem, 45-46, 52

Barndoor skate, 70

Bay shrimp, 60-61

Benthic ecosystems, effects of fishing on, 49-50

Bering Sea ecosystem, 44-45, 52, 106

analogs to, 45

Berryteuthis sp., 45

Biological productivity, 81, 103

acceptable levels of, 2

Black scabbardfish, 49

Bluefin tuna, 11

Bluefish, 30-31, 41

Boats. See Fishing fleets

Bottom topography, effect of fishing on, 4, 49

Boundaries

erasure of, 90-91

too many, 90

Brevoortia tyrannus, 29

Buy-back programs, 122



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--> Index A Acerina cernua, 58 Acipenser transmontanus, 61 Action approach, 114-116 Adaptive management, 112, 125 Alewife, 57 Algal blooms, 58 Allocation systems, 74 Alosa pseudoharengus, 57 A. sapidissima, 11 American eel, 61 American lobster, 61 American sand lance, 44 American shad, 11 Ammodytes americanus, 44 A. hexapterus, 45 Anguilla americanus, 61 Animal feed, 1, 21 Anoplopoma fimbria, 31 Anthropogenic impacts, 13, 63 Aphanopus carbo, 49 Aquaculture, 3, 20. See also Mariculture Arctica islandica, 101 Asian clam, 59 Assignment of rights, 8 to communities, 10 Atlantic cutlassfish, 27 Atlantic halibut, 11, 16, 27 Atlantic mackerel, 27 Atlantic pollock, 27 Atlantic salmon, 11 Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission, 80 B Baleen whales, 45, 47, 71 Barents Sea ecosystem, 45-46, 52 Barndoor skate, 70 Bay shrimp, 60-61 Benthic ecosystems, effects of fishing on, 49-50 Bering Sea ecosystem, 44-45, 52, 106 analogs to, 45 Berryteuthis sp., 45 Biological productivity, 81, 103 acceptable levels of, 2 Black scabbardfish, 49 Bluefin tuna, 11 Bluefish, 30-31, 41 Boats. See Fishing fleets Bottom topography, effect of fishing on, 4, 49 Boundaries erasure of, 90-91 too many, 90 Brevoortia tyrannus, 29 Buy-back programs, 122

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--> Bycatch, 9, 21, 23, 41-43, 81-84, 123 Bycatch-reduction devices (BRDs), 9, 83 Bythrotrepes cederstroemi, 58 C CALFED, 62 California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigation (CalCOFI), 108, 115 Canadian Atlantic Fisheries Scientific Advisory Committee (CAFSAC), 33-34 Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO), 101 Canadian marine fisheries, 33-35 Cancer magister, 61 Capacity. See Fishing capacity Capelin, 45 Capital stuffing, 73-74 Carcinogenic compounds, 57-58 Carcinus maenas, 60 Catchability, nonuniformity of, 65 Catches. See Global marine catches Catch rates, efforts to maintain, 1 Central Valley Project Improvement Act, 62 Chesapeake Bay, 55-57, 80 Chesapeake Bay Program (CBP), 54 Chilean Inca scad, 27 Chilean sardine, 27 Chilean sea bass, 47 Chinook salmon, 62 Chub mackerel, 27 Clupea harengus, 27, 45, 98 C. pallasi, 61-62, 98 Cod, 11, 45 Code of Conduct, 121 Cod war, 11 Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fisheries Commission, 31 Comanagement programs, 67, 99 Commercial fisheries, 3, 29 landings in United States, 3-4, 30 Committee on Ecosystem Management for Sustainable Marine Fisheries, 2, 12 directions to, 2, 12 Common stake, 70 Community-based management, 8, 97, 99-104 experimental approaches to, 8 Community-based quotas, 10 Community Development Quota Program, 32 Community-development quotas (CDQs), 67, 102, 125 Conclusions, 5-6, 117-118 Conference on Stradding Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks, 121 Conservation. See Resource conservation Continental shelf ecosystems, 119 Continuous Plankton Recorder Survey, 108, 115 Conveyor-belt, 52 Coral reef ecosystems, 119 effects of fishing on, 4, 38, 40-41 Coregonus clupeaformis, 57 Coriolis force effects, 53 Crangon franciscorum, 60-61 Crassostrea virginica, 60 Crustaceans, 60-61 planktonic, 47 Cyanide fishing, 40-41 Cynoscion nebulosus, 31, 41 D Data collection and exchange, 9, 107-109, 112, 125 Deep-sea fisheries, 48-49. See also Open ocean ecosystems Delta smelt, 62 Diadema antillarum, 38, 40 Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), banning of, 58 Dinoflagellate, 56 Discards, 9, 21, 23, 41-43, 83-84, 123 Discount rate, 72-73 Dissostichus eleginoides, 47 Dolphins, 12, 43 Dreissena polymorpha, 58 Dungeness crab, 61 Dynamite fishing, 41 E Ecological Applications, 12 Economic incentives, 104 Economic productivity, 12-13, 72-76 acceptable levels of, 2 defined, 2n global, 20-22 Ecosystem-based management, 2-6, 9, 15, 113-120 defined, 15 suggestion for action, 114-116 Ecosystem components, nonfished, 118

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--> Ecosystem functioning, fish populations in relation to, 120 Ecosystem goods and services, 1-2, 6-7, 13-14 defined, 1n Ecosystem modeling, 118 Ecosystem monitoring, 114-115 Ecosystem processes, understanding, 2-3 Ecosystems. See also Marine ecosystems benthic, 49-50 degradation of, 3 humans as components of, 2-3, 15 lack of attention to, 118 large, discussed, 43-48, 55-62 marine, 1, 36-63 multiple impacts on, 55-62 overexploitation of, 2 resiliency of, 105 Ecosystem services. See Marine ecosystem services El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, 52-54, 59, 62, 108 Endangered fish species, 62 Enforcement, 9, 70-71 Enhydra lutris, 39 Environmental change, 4-6, 9, 118 and variability, 52-55, 66, 87 Estuary ecosystems, 119 Euphausia superba, 47 European river ruffe, 58 Eutrophication, 54-55 Excess fishing capacity, 7-8, 75, 118, 121-122 Exclusive economic zones (EEZs), 29, 78, 92 Exploitation. See also Overexploitation moderating, 35 Exploited species, rebuilding populations of, 2 F Fact uncertainty, 103 Fish populations demographic effects of fishing, 36 dynamics of, 120 in relation to ecosystem functioning, 120 Fish-stock utilization, degree of, 26-27 Fish tagging, 109 Fisheries, 1. See also Marine-capture fisheries assignment of rights in, 8 deep-sea, 48-49 opportunity to participate in, 96-98 risks of expanding, 6 Fishery management, 1-2, 12-14, 73-75 broadening participation in, 94-95, 125 community-based, 8 evolving views of, 16-18 flexibility in, 5 incorporating ecosystem considerations into, 7 incremental changes in, 118 innovative tools in, 118 institutions' role in effective, 9-10, 91-95, 124-125 international developments in, 92 present practices, 3 traditional single-species, 3, 6-7 Fishery-management plans (FMPs), 78 Fishery managers, dealing with uncertainty, 120 Fishery models, 10 Fishing, 1 biomass killed by, 3, 21, 23 effects on ecosystems, 4, 9, 13, 36-63 flexibility in, 5 need to reduce, 5-6, 13 societal benefits from, 2 sustainable, 2-3 technological advances in, 28, 121, 124 terminology of, 17-18, 26n Fishing capacity. See also Excess fishing capacity; Overcapacity defined, 7 need for better information about, 122 Fishing fleets in the Philippines, 40-41 tonnage of, 27-28 Fishing mortality assessing, 64-66 need to reduce overall, 5, 9, 117-118 unaccounted for, 23 underestimated, 34 unobserved, 10, 41-43 withstanding, 3 Fishing sectors, 28-33 Fleets. See Fishing fleets Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), 19 assessments by, 23-26, 32 Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries, 92, 121 Food-web limitations, 24-26 Foreign currency needs, increasing fishing pressures, 13 Future generations, maintaining options for, 2

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--> G Gadus macrocephalus, 29 G. morhua, 11, 33-35, 45 Georges Bank ecosystem, 43-44, 80, 108 Georges Bank haddock, 26 Global fish stocks, degree of utilization of, 26-27 Global marine catches, 1 limits to, 24-28 Global marine fisheries, status of, 20-28 Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics program, 108 Global Ocean Observing System, 108 Gonatus sp., 45 Goods and services, ecosystem, 1 Great Lakes Fishery Commission, 58 Great Lakes, Laurentian, 57-58 Green crab, 60 Groundfish Data Bank, 107 Gulf of Mexico Regional Fishery Management Council, 42-43 H Habitat, valuing, 2 Harvesting the oceans, 17-18 Herring, 45, 98 Hippoglossus hippoglossus, 11, 27 H. stenolepis, 16, 42 Homarus americanus, 61 Hoplostethus atlanticus, 11, 48 Humans affecting marine environments, 13, 63 as components of ecosystems, 2-3, 15 Human sustainability, 15 Hurricane Allen (1980), 38, 40 Huxley, Thomas, 16 Hypomesus transpacificus, 62 I IFQs. See Individual transferable quotas (ITQs) Indigenous people's fisheries, 31-32 Individual transferable quotas (ITQs), 67, 74, 101-102, 107, 125 Industrialization, increasing fishing pressures, 13 Information needs, 9-10, 125-126 Institutions cross-sectoral arrangements, 115-116 role in effective fishery management, 9-10, 91-95, 124-125 International agreements, 13 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, 16, 108 International Joint Commission on Water Quality, 58 International Pacific Halibut Commission, 16, 68-69, 124 International treaties, 67 International Whaling Commission (IWC), 70 Islandic herring, 27 J Japanese pilchard, 27 Joint Global Ocean Flux Study, 108 K Katsuwonus pelamis, 27 Kelp beds, 39 Kenai River chinook salmon, 69 Keystone species, 39 King mackerel, 80 Krill, 47, 111 L Lake trout, 57 Lake whitefish, 57 Landing statistics, 65 Large marine ecosystem (LME) approach, 116 Laurentian Great Lakes, 57-58 Less-industrialized countries, 3 Limits. See Marine fish yields Long-term potential yield (LTPY), 19n Lutjanus campechanus, 31, 42, 90 M Mallotus villosus, 45 ''Malthusian" overfishing, 41 Management, 68-71, 77-95. See also Adaptive management Ecosystem-based

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--> management Fishery management Risk-prone management community-based, 97, 99-104 rights-based, 97 in the United States, 78, 80 Management goals incorporating ecosystem goals, 119-120 need to clearly explicate, 10 Management institutions, 9-10, 91-95, 124-125 composition of, 94-95 Management responsibility, granting, 10 Managers. See also Recommendations dealing with uncertainty, 120 Marbled rockcod, 11, 27, 47 Mariculture, 20-21, 50-51, 67 large scale, 4 Marine animals, 3 Marine aquaculture. See Mariculture Marine ecosystems, 36-63 diagnosing problems of, 64-76 effects of fishing on, 4-5 effects of humans on, 13 understanding, 105-106, 125 Marine ecosystem services, 2, 13 Marine fisheries, 1, 3-4 declining catches, 3-4 diagnosing problems of, 64-76 global status of, 20-28 United States status of, 28-33 Marine fish yields, 12, 23-24 limitations on, 24-28 Marine plants, 3, 20 Marine protected areas (MPAs), 8-9, 84-91, 112, 118, 122-123 economic argument for, 90-91 examples of, 88-89 in the Philippines, 89 practical considerations, 86-87 scope of need for, 87-88, 90 Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction program, 115 Market forces, circumventing, 8 Masgnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act of 1976 (MSFCMA), 6, 19, 31, 78, 81, 94, 119 Maximum economic yield (MEY), defined, 17n Maximum sustainable yield (MSY) defined, 17n redefining, 6-7 Melanogrammus aeglefinus, 26 Menhaden, 29 Mercury pollution, 58 Merlussius bilinearis, 42 Modeling, 109-110, 126. See also Ecosystem modeling Fishery models Multispecies models Numerical models Trophic models Monitoring, 9, 107-109, 124 ecosystem, 114-115 long-term, 125 Morone saxatilis, 26, 61 Mortality. See Fishing mortality Multispecies models, 2, 10, 110-111 Multispecies virtual-population analysis (MSVPA), 111 Multi-use zones, 122 Mustelis canis, 44 Mysid, 60 N National Fisherman magazine, 30 National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), 19, 35, 68, 78, 80-81 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 19, 108, 115 National Research Council (NRC), 2, 12, 44, 68, 83 Ocean Studies Board (OSB), 2, 12 National Science Foundation (NSF), 108 National Standards for Fishery Conservation and Management, 79 Native Americans. See Indigenous people's fisheries Neomysis mercedis, 60 Net restrictions, 30 Nitrate pollution, 58 Nitrite pollution, 58 Nonfished ecosystem components, 118 North Atlantic Oscillation, 52, 110 North Sea herring, 16 North Sea plaice, 16 Northern Atlantic silver hake, 42 Northern cod, 33-35 Northern Cod Review Panel, 34 Northern rockfish, 27 Northern sea otters, 39 Northwest Indian Fisheries Commission, 31 Notothenia rossi, 11, 27, 47 Numerical models, 109, 119-120

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--> O Ocean quahogs, 101 Ocean Studies Board (OSB), 2, 12 Oceans estimating capacity of, 24-26 harvesting, 17-18 resources not inexhaustible, 2, 6 Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, 57, 62, 69 Open ocean ecosystems, 119 Orange roughy, 11, 48 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), 74 Osmerus mordax, 57 Ostrea lurida, 60 Otters, 37-39 Overcapacity, 7-8 Overcapitalization, 118 Overexploitation diagnosing the problem, 64-76 factors contributing to, 117-118 Overfishing defined, 3n examples of, 34 global, 3 halting, 5 "Malthusian," 41 Oyster-dredging, 49 Oysters, 60 P Pacific cod, 29 Pacific Fisheries Management Council, 31 Pacific halibut, 16, 42 Pacific herring, 61-62, 98 Pacific Ocean perch, 27 Pacific salmon, 57 Pacific sand lance, 45 Paralichthys dentatus, 30-31, 41 Partnership agreements, 99 Patagonian toothfish, 47 Penaeus spp., 42 Petromyzon marinus, 57 Pfiesteria piscicida, 56 Philippines, ecosystem effects of fishing in, 40-41 Phosphorus pollution, 58 Planktivores, 37 Pleuronectes americanus, 31 P. ferrugineus, 43 P. platessa, 16 Political disagreements, 117 Pollachius virens, 27 Polyprion americanus, 101 Pomatomus saltatrix, 30-31, 41 Population size, overfishing as a function of, 3n Potamocorbula amurensis, 59 Predictability, lack of, 118 Price increases, increasing fishing pressures, 13, 28 Processing, technological advances in, 124 Property rights, ill-defined, 71-73, 118, 121 Protected areas. See Marine protected areas Protein from fishery products, 20 Q Quotas. See Community Development Quota Program Community-development quotas Community-based quotas R Rainbow smelt, 57 Raja batis, 44, 70 R. laevis, 70 Ratchet effect, 74-75 Recommendations, 6-10, 118-126 Recreational fisheries, 3, 29-31 landings in United States, 3-4 Recruitment, 34 Red snapper, 31, 42, 90 Regulation of effort, 95-96 Research needed, 10, 125-126 Reserves. See Marine protected areas Resource conservation lack of commitment to, 117 National Standards for, 79 Resource investment, 72-73 Rights. See also Property rights assignment of, 8, 10 Rights-based allocation systems, 74, 97-104 Rio Conference on Environment and Development, 92-93 Risk-averse approaches, 6 Risk-prone management, 117 Rougheye rockfish, 27

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--> S Sablefish, 31 Saithe, 27 Salmon populations, in the Pacific Northwest, 52-53 Salmo salar, 11 Saltwater Sportsman magazine, 30 Salvelinus namaycush, 57 San Francisco Bay, 58-62 herring fishery in, 98 invaders of, 59-60 Sardines, 54 Sardinops sagax sagax, 27 Scientific information, 105-112 how used, 67-68 inadequacy of, 64-68, 118 Scomber japonicus, 27 S. scombrus, 27 Scomberomorus cavalla, 80 S. maculatus, 56, 80 Scottish Fishermen's Federation. See Fishing mortality Sea. See Ocean Sea lamprey, 57 Sea otters, 37-39 Sea turtles, 68, 83 Sea urchins, 38-39 Seaweed. See Marine plants Sebastes aleutianus, 27 S. alutus, 27 S. borealis, 27 S. polyspinus, 27 S. zacentrus, 27 Sediment, 59 Sewage, 59 Share-based allocation systems, 74 Sharks, excessive fishing mortality of, 27 Sharpchin rockfish, 27 Shellfish, 60 Ships. See Fishing fleets Shortraker rockfish, 27 Shrimp, 42 Shrimp trawling, 43 Single-species management, 3 conservative, 6-7, 80-81, 119 Skates, 44 Skipjack tuna, 27 Small-scale fisheries, 3 Smuggling, 71 Socioeconomic incentives, 71-76, 95-96, 125 encouraging, 121 inappropriate, 117 regulation of effort, 95-96 Socioeconomic information, uncertainties concerning, 67, 126 South American pilchard, 27 Southern Ocean ecosystem, 47-48, 52 Space scale mismatches, 118 Spanish mackerel, 56, 80 Spawner biomass, 34 Species. See also Exploited species Single-species management individual species in decline, 11 endangered, 62 interactions among, 46 pelagic, 8, 53-55, 122 targeted, 8-9, 82 "underutilized," 18 Species interactions, 3, 6 Species-specific life histories, 119-120 Spiny dogfish, 44 Spisulas solidissima, 101 Spotted seatrout, 31, 41 Squid, 45 Stakeholder involvement, 94-95 Statistics, inadequacy of, 66, 118 Stizostedion vitreum, 57 Stock assessments, 7, 18, 64-66 flawed, 34 Strategic concerns, versus short-term variations, 120 Striped bass, 26, 56, 61 Subsidies, 8, 76 Subsistence fisheries, 3, 17, 32, 72 Summer flounder, 30-31, 41 Surf clams, 101 Sustainability, 1-3, 14-15 applied to humans, 15 defined, 14 improving, 118 options for achieving, 17, 77-116 Sustainable Fisheries Act of 1996, 6, 31-32, 70, 78, 119 T Task Force on Atlantic Fisheries, 70 Technological advances, 28, 67, 89, 124 Tenure uncertainty, 103 Terminology of fishing, 17-19, 26n Theragra chalcogramma, 11, 29, 42 Thompson, W.F., 16

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--> Thunnus albacares, 11 T. thynnus, 11 Time preference of money, 72 Time scales, 52 mismatches in, 118 Total allowable catch (TAC), 32-33, 74, 102 Toxic compounds, 57-59 Trachurus murphyi, 27 Trichiurus lepturus, 27 Trophic cascades, 37-38 Trophic models, 10 Turtle-excluder devices, 43 U Uncertainty dealing with, 7, 103, 110, 120-121 explicit incorporation into management decisions, 121 United Nations, 19 Agreement for Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Species, 116 Conference on Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks, 92, 121 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), 92 U.S. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, 61 U.S.-Canadian International Commission for Northwest Atlantic Fisheries, 17 U.S. Department of Commerce, 19 U.S. exclusive economic zone (EEZ), 29, 78 U.S. Fish Commission, 16 U.S. marine fisheries, 28-33 status of, 32-33 Upwelling systems, 53-54 V Variations, 52-55, 66 dealing with, 120-121 Virtual communities, 8, 10, 99-101, 118, 125-126 W Walleye pollock, 11, 29, 42, 57 Water flea, 58 Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Area, 32 Whales. See Baleen whales White sturgeon, 61 Winter flounder, 31 Wreckfish, 101 Y Yellowfin tuna, 11, 43 Yellowtail flounder, 43 Yields. See Marine fish yields Z Zebra mussel, 58