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--> Sustaining Marine Fisheries Committee on Ecosystem Management for Sustainable Marine Fisheries Ocean Studies Board Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington D.C. 1999
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--> NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competency and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was a Governing Board Theme Initiative project and funded by the Academy Industry Program Fund, the Mellon Fund, and the Casey Fund of the National Research Council, and the Kellogg Endowment Fund of the National Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Medicine. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. Cover art was created by Alfredo M. Arreguin. Mr. Arreguin is an internationally recognized artist who lives in Seattle, Washington. For many years he has painted the world's endangered ecosystems—the jungles and wetlands, as well as the salmon of the Pacific Northwest. His work is displayed in numerous collections, including the National Museum of American Art in Washington, D.C. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Sustaining marine fisheries / Committee on Ecosystem Management for Sustainable Marine Fisheries, Ocean Studies Board, Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources, National Research Council. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-309-05526-1 (casebound) 1. Sustainable fisheries. 2. Fishery management. 3. Marine ecology. I. National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Ecosystem Management for Sustainable Marine Fisheries. SH329.S87 S87 1998 639.3′2—dc21 98-58059 Sustaining Marine Fisheries is available from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; 800-624-6242 or 202-334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); http://www.nap.edu Copyright 1999 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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--> This report is dedicated to the memory of committee member Nathaniel Bingham (1938–1998)
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--> The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility of advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.
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--> COMMITTEE ON ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE MARINE FISHERIES HAROLD MOONEY, Chairman, Stanford University, California DAYTON LEE ALVERSON, Natural Resources Consultants, Seattle NATHANIEL BINGHAM, Pacific Coast Federation of Fishermen's Associations, Mendocino, California* JERRY CLARK, National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, Washington, D.C. FREDERICK GRASSLE, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey EILEEN HOFMANN, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia EDWARD HOUDE, University of Maryland, Solomons SIMON LEVIN, Princeton University, New Jersey JANE LUBCHENCO, Oregon State University, Corvallis JOHN MAGNUSON, University of Wisconsin, Madison BONNIE McCAY, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey GORDON MUNRO, University of British Columbia, Vancouver ROBERT PAINE, University of Washington, Seattle STEVEN PALUMBI, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts DANIEL PAULY, University of British Columbia, Vancouver ELLEN PIKITCH, Wildlife Conservation Society, New York, New York THOMAS POWELL, University of California, Berkeley MICHAEL SISSENWINE, National Marine Fisheries Service, Woods Hole, Massachusetts Staff DAVID POLICANSKY, Study Director LORA TAYLOR, Senior Project Assistant * Deceased May 1998.
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--> OCEAN STUDIES BOARD KENNETH BRINK Chairman, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts ALICE ALLDREDGE, University of California, Santa Barbara DAVID BRADLEY, Pennsylvania State University, State College DAN BROMLEY, University of Wisconsin, Madison OTIS BROWN, University of Miami, Florida WILLIAM CURRY, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts RANA FINE, University of Miami, Florida CARL FRIEHE, University of California, Irvine ROBERT GAGOSIAN, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts JOHN HOBBIE, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts EILEEN HOFMANN, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia EDWARD HOUDE, University of Maryland, Solomons JOHN KNAUSS, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett ROBERT KNOX, University of California, San Diego RAY KRONE, University of California, Davis LOUIS LANZEROTTI, Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, New Jersey NANCY MARCUS, Florida State University, Tallahassee B. GREGORY MITCHELL, University of California, San Diego NEIL OPDYKE, University of Florida, Gainesville MICHAEL ORBACH, Duke University Marine Laboratory, Beaufort, North Carolina TERRANCE QUINN II, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Juneau Center JAMES RAY, Equilon Enterprises LLC, Houston, Texas GEORGE SOMERO, Stanford University, Pacific Grove, California PAUL STOFFA, University of Texas, Austin KARL TUREKIAN, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut Staff MORGAN GOPNIK, Director EDWARD R. URBAN, JR., Senior Program Officer DAN WALKER, Senior Program Officer SUE ROBERTS, Program Officer ROBIN MORRIS, Administrative Associate SHARI MAGUIRE, Senior Project Assistant LORA TAYLOR, Senior Project Assistant JENNIFER WRIGHT, Senior Project Assistant ANN CARLISLE, Project Assistant
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--> COMMISSION ON GEOSCIENCES, ENVIRONMENT, AND RESOURCES GEORGE M. HORNBERGER, Chair, University of Virginia, Charlottesville PATRICK R. ATKINS, Aluminum Company of America, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania B. JOHN GARRICK, PLG, Inc., Newport Beach, California THOMAS E. GRAEDEL, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut DEBRA KNOPMAN, Progressive Policy Institute, Washington, D.C. KAI N. LEE, Williams College, Williamstown, Massachusetts JUDITH E. McDOWELL, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts RICHARD A. MESERVE, Covington & Burling, Washington, D.C. HUGH C. MORRIS, Canadian Global Change Program, Delta, British Columbia RAYMOND A. PRICE, Queen's University at Kingston, Ontario H. RONALD PULLIAM, University of Georgia, Athens THOMAS C. SCHELLING, University of Maryland, College Park VICTORIA J. TSCHINKEL, Landers and Parsons, Tallahassee, Florida E-AN ZEN, University of Maryland, College Park MARY LOU ZOBACK, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California Staff ROBERT M. HAMILTON, Executive Director GREGORY H. SYMMES, Assistant Executive Director JEANETTE SPOON, Administrative and Financial Officer SANDI FITZPATRICK, Administrative Associate MARQUITA SMITH, Administrative Assistant/Technology Analyst
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--> Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the NRC in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The content of the final report is the responsibility of the NRC and the study committee, and not the responsibility of the reviewers. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Chris Blackburn, Alaska Groundfish Data Bank John Chipman, University of Minnesota Ellie Dorsey, Conservation Law Foundation Richard Haedrich, Memorial University of Newfoundland Susan Hanna, Oregon State University Raymond Hilborn, University of Washington James Kitchell, University of Wisconsin, Madison John Ledyard, California Institute of Technology Kai Lee, Williams College Pamela Matson, Stanford University Ransom Myers, Dalhousie University
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--> William Pearcy, Oregon State University C.H. Peterson, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill Terrance Quinn II, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Juneau Center While the individuals listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, it must be emphasized that responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the NRC.
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--> Foreword Fishery issues continue to receive enormous, and growing, public attention. A particularly good example can be seen in the groundfish fisheries off New England, where increasingly stringent regulations have been implemented to limit the capture of cod, haddock, flounder, and other fishes. Many other marine fisheries are similarly troubled. Yet, despite considerable study, the exact causes of the problems and the means to solve them are often difficult to understand. The National Research Council's Ocean Studies Board (OSB) has been actively involved in a number of studies related to marine fisheries, leading to such reports as An Assessment of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (1994), Improving the Management of U.S. Marine Fisheries (1994), and Improving Fish Stock Assessments (1998). The issues presented by studies such as these highlight the need for taking a broad view of fishery problems. Thus, the Ocean Studies Board designed the study that is the subject of this report, assembling a group of experts to produce the broad-based overview presented here. In addition, several topics raised in this volume are currently being explored in greater detail by ongoing OSB study committees including the Committee to Review Individual Fishing Quotas, the Committee to Review Community Development Quotas, the Committee on the Evaluation, Design, and Monitoring of Marine Reserves and Protected Areas in the U.S., and the Committee on Improving the Collection and Use of Fisheries Data. We look forward to continuing to make the connections between fishery science and policy that are necessary to achieve sustainable resource management. KENNETH BRINK, CHAIRMAN OCEAN STUDIES BOARD
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--> Preface Producing this report was a difficult challenge because of the complexity of the issue—that of trying to bring new insights and approaches into the ways that fisheries are viewed and managed. The need for this evaluation is clear. Many of the fisheries of the world's oceans are under threat. These threatened fisheries are important economically, culturally, and for supplying protein to a growing human population. The ecosystems to which the targeted fish, invertebrates, and plants belong provide additional goods and services to society, so they too must be considered in a holistic view of the problem. It is this holistic viewpoint that we have sought. The Ocean Studies Board committee that produced this report was unusually broad in its expertise and included fishery scientists, ecosystem and population ecologists, fishers, and social scientists, including economists. Its membership includes people from the fishing industry and from nongovernmental organizations. As can be imagined, achieving a convergence of viewpoints among such a diverse group was challenging. However, it is just such a convergence that is necessary, as discussed in this report, to open new approaches to the difficult problem of sustaining marine fisheries. In addition to the direct input of committee members, we sought advice at a conference in Monterey, California, from a larger group of international experts representing, again, a diversity of approaches. The results of the discussions at that meeting were presented in a recent special issue of Ecological Applications and also importantly influenced the committee's deliberations, as reflected in this report.
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--> The committee also sought advice and insight from a group of fishers and conservationists at two discussion groups, one in Seattle and the other in Washington, D.C. These meetings clearly indicated the history of the problems and the universal desire to find equitable and achievable ways of addressing the issue of the health of fishery resources. As will be seen in this report, the committee has no silver bullet to offer. The problem is too large and too complex for a single solution. What we do offer is an overview of the problem and the history of its development. We do point to some pervasive parts of the problem that must be addressed and then offer specific approaches, many of which are already in place, that need amplification and further development. Most of all, the committee proposes a new context, an ecosystem viewpoint in which humans are the major player, in which we must proceed in order to have any hope of maintaining sustainable fisheries in a world in which climate is changing and the human population is growing. Many individuals and organizations helped the committee in its work. We are grateful to scientists around the world who provided us with information, literature citations, and advice. The National Marine Fisheries Service and the United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization were particularly helpful with documentation. This study was stimulated by the actions of Mary Hope Katsouros, former director of the Ocean Studies Board. For her extraordinary energy and insights the committee is grateful. We are pleased that the National Research Council (NRC) agreed that this problem is so important that it funded this study from internal sources. The committee also thanks NRC Chair Bruce Alberts and NRC Executive Officer E. William Colglazier for their personal interest in and help with this project. The staff of the Ocean Studies Board provided the usual excellent backup for the project. The committee is especially grateful to project officer David Policansky, the quintessential professional, for his never-flagging, crucial, and substantial input in bringing this report to fruition. HAROLD A. MOONEY, CHAIRMAN COMMITTEE ON ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE MARINE FISHERIES
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--> Contents Executive Summary 1 Sustainability and Ecosystem-Based Management 2 The Status of Marine Fisheries 3 Fishing and Marine Ecosystems 4 Conclusions and Recommendations 5 1 Introduction 11 Nature of the Problem and the Committee's Approach 11 Context 12 Sustainability and Ecosystem-Based Management 14 Evolution of Views of Fishery Management 16 Report Organization 18 2 Current Status of Marine Fisheries 19 Global Overview 20 United States Overview 28 A Canadian Example: Northern Cod 33 Conclusions 35 3 Fishing and Marine Ecosystems 36 Introduction 36 Removal of Herbivorous Fishes from Coral Reef Ecosystems 38 Bycatch, Discards, and Unobserved Fishing Mortality 41 Fishing and Large Marine Ecosystems 43 Deep-Sea Fisheries 48 Effects of Fishing on Benthic Ecosystems 49
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--> Mariculture 50 Environmental Change and Variability 52 Multiple Impacts on Ecosystems 55 Conclusions 62 4 Diagnosing the Problems 64 Scientific Matters 64 Management Matters 68 Socioeconomic Incentives 71 Conclusions 76 5 Options for Achieving Sustainability 77 Management 77 Socioeconomic Incentives 95 Scientific Matters 105 Ecosystem-Based Approaches to Managing Fisheries 113 6 Conclusions and Recommendations 117 Conclusions 117 Recommendations 118 Literature Cited 127 Appendix A. Papers Presented at International Conference, Monterey, February 1996 149 Appendix B. Biographies of Committee and Staff 152 Index 157