C
Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Glossary

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS


AH

aryl-hydrocarbon hydroxylase receptor


CDC

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid

DOD

Department of Defense


EAE

experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

EPA

Environmental Protection Agency

ER

estrogen RNA

ERKO

estrogen-receptor knockout


HHS

Department of Health and Human Services


IOM

Institute of Medicine

HLA

histocompatibility


LH

luteinizing hormone


mRNA

messenger RNA

MS

multiple sclerosis


NCHS

National Center for Health Statistics

NCRR

National Center for Research Resources

NHANES

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

NIEHS

National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences

NIH

National Institutes of Health

NIOSH

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

NRC

National Research Council


ORWH

Office for Research on Women's Health, NIH


RNA

ribonucleic acid


SES

socioeconomic status


TCDD

herbicide 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin


VA

Department of Veterans Affairs


WHI

Women's Health Initiative



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 62
Gender Differences in Susceptibility to Environmental Factors: A Priority Assessment - Workshop Report C Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Glossary ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS AH aryl-hydrocarbon hydroxylase receptor CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention DNA deoxyribonucleic acid DOD Department of Defense EAE experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis EPA Environmental Protection Agency ER estrogen RNA ERKO estrogen-receptor knockout HHS Department of Health and Human Services IOM Institute of Medicine HLA histocompatibility LH luteinizing hormone mRNA messenger RNA MS multiple sclerosis NCHS National Center for Health Statistics NCRR National Center for Research Resources NHANES National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey NIEHS National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences NIH National Institutes of Health NIOSH National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health NRC National Research Council ORWH Office for Research on Women's Health, NIH RNA ribonucleic acid SES socioeconomic status TCDD herbicide 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin VA Department of Veterans Affairs WHI Women's Health Initiative

OCR for page 62
Gender Differences in Susceptibility to Environmental Factors: A Priority Assessment - Workshop Report Glossary Environment is comprised of all chemical, physical, and biological features of the earth than can affect or be affected by human activities. Environmental exposure occurs in a variety of ways: in different settings (e.g., the home, the workplace), through different routes (e.g., foods), because of different activities (e.g., chores, hobbies), or because of unique or critical times in the lifespan. Gender is used when referring to the social expression of living with one or two X chromosomes. Gender differences are primarily determined by non-biologic factors, such as social roles, but influenced by sex-steroid hormone metabolism, anatomy, immunologic function, and genetic influences. Genes are the fundamental physical and functional unit of heredity. A gene is an ordered sequence of nucleotides located in a particular chromosome that encodes a specific functional product. "knockout" mice are experimental mice created by disrupting (knocking out) the function of a specific gene. MAP-2 kinase is an enzyme that transduces growth factor pathways. Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that attacks the myelin sheath surrounding nerve fibers in the brain and the spinal cord. Mutation is a permanent, transmissible change in the DNA sequence. It can be an insertion or deletion of genetic material or an alteration in the original information. Polymorphisms are naturally occurring variations in a DNA sequence. Polymorphisms are useful markers because they allow researchers to distinguish between DNA of different origins. Sex is generally used to designate the chromosomal or biologic phenomena linked to having one or two X chromosomes. Normal females have two X chromosomes, while normal males have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome. Susceptibility is the state of being readily affected or acted upon by the environment. The impact depends on exposure and the individual's ability to respond. TCDD is the herbicide 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, a known carcinogen and hormone disrupter in rats. Transgenic mice are mice that have a foreign gene introduced into their cells.