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--> Third Annual Symposium on Frontiers of Engineering NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1998
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--> NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The National Academy of Engineering (NAE), a private nonprofit institution, was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) as a parallel organization of distinguished engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in its selection of members, sharing with the NAS the responsibility of advising the federal government on scientific and technical matters; this mandate is carried out through joint supervision of the National Research Council. The NAE also sponsors an independent study program aimed at meeting national needs, encourages engineering education and research, and recognizes the superior achievement of engineers. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the NAE. This publication has been reviewed according to procedures approved by a National Academy of Engineering report review process. Publication of signed work signifies that it is judged a competent and useful contribution worthy of public consideration, but it does not imply endorsement of conclusions or recommendations by the NAE. The interpretations and conclusions in such publications are those of the authors and do not purport to represent the views of the council, officers, or staff of the national Academy of Engineering. Funding for the activity that led to this publication was provided by the National Science Foundation, the U.S. Department of Defense, the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and the National Academy of Engineering Fund. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Number 98-84374 International Standard Book Number 0-309-05983-6 Copyright © 1998 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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--> Organizing Committee Third Annual Symposium on Frontiers of Engineering ROBERT H. WAGONER (Chair), Professor, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ohio State University CHARLOTTE CHEN-TSAI, Technology Manager, North America, Alcoa Closure Systems International SUSAN CORWIN, Director, Computing Enhancement Architecture Lab, Intel Corporation CONNIE L. GUTOWSKI, Windstar Chassis Manager, Ford Motor Company DANIEL E. HASTINGS, Chief Scientist, United States Air Force H. GENE HAWKINS, JR., Associate Research Engineer, Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A&M University PAUL NIELAN, Department Manager, Solid and Material Mechanics Department, Sandia National Laboratories RICHARD S. PARNAS, Group Leader, Polymer Composites, National Institute of Standards and Technology ELSA REICHMANIS, Head, Polymer and Organic Materials Research Department, Lucent Technologies SHERI SHEPPARD, Associate Professor, Mechanical Engineering-Design Division, Stanford University DEBORAH L. THURSTON, Associate Professor, Department of General Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign SHAWN M. WALSH, Materials Engineer, U.S. Army Research Laboratory Staff JANET R. HUNZIKER, Program Officer MARY W. L. KUTRUFF, Project Assistant
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--> Preface This book is the third publication highlighting the presentations of the National Academy of Engineering's (NAE) symposium series, Frontiers of Engineering. The Third Annual NAE Symposium on Frontiers of Engineering was held September 18–20, 1997, at the Beckman Center in Irvine, California. The 101 emerging engineering leaders from industry, academia, and federal laboratories who attended the meeting heard presentations and discussed pioneering research and technical work in a variety of engineering fields. Symposium speakers were asked to prepare extended abstracts of their presentations, and it is those papers that are contained here. Goals of Frontiers of Engineering In 1994, the NAE Council initiated Frontiers of Engineering, and the first symposium was held in September 1995. Motivating the activity is the idea that the changing nature of engineering compels researchers and practitioners alike to be aware of developments and challenges in areas other than their own. Providing an opportunity for outstanding younger engineers to hear from their peers about these frontiers will, it is anticipated, lead to collaborative work, the transfer of new techniques and approaches across fields, and the establishment of contacts among the next generation of leaders in engineering, among other benefits. Symposium participants represent the full range of engineering fields in the industrial, academic, and government sectors. They are invited to attend after a competitive nomination and selection process. The number of participants is kept relatively low, about 100, to maximize the opportunity for inter-
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--> action and exchange among the attendees. The selection of topics and speakers for each year's meeting is carried out by an organizing committee composed of engineers in the same 30- to 45-year-old cohort as the target participants. Content of the Third Annual Symposium Presentations at the symposium covered leading-edge research and technical work in five areas: biomechanics; sensors and control for manufacturing processes; safety and security issues; decision making tools for design and manufacturing; and intelligent transportation systems. Talks focused on such topics as implant design and technology, design and application of optical fiber sensors, quadrupole resonance explosive detection systems, multicriteria evaluation of manufacturing performance, and automated highway systems. (See Appendixes for complete program.) Speakers were asked to tailor their talks to a technically sophisticated but nonspecialist audience and to address such questions as: What are the frontiers in their field? What experiments, prototypes, and design studies are completed and in progress? What new tools and methodologies are being used? What are the current limitations on advances? What is the theoretical, commercial, societal, and long-term significance of the work? As in past years, the varied backgrounds of the participants set the stage for lively question-and-answer periods and discussions both during and after the formal sessions. The 1997 program included a wrap-up session intended to focus on some of the broader, more policy-oriented issues that emerged from the sessions and a field trip to the Beckman Laser Institute. Philip M. Condit, chairman and CEO of The Boeing Company, gave the after-dinner address on the first evening of the symposium. His presentation, which is also included in this volume, focused on today's rapid pace of change. He urged symposium participants to keep an open mind about learning from others, including those from dissimilar industries and disciplines. As with past symposia, feedback from participants confirmed the value of Frontiers of Engineering. Attendees found the opportunity to interact with engineers from other sectors and disciplines a broadening experience that, if nothing else, exposed them to ideas and people that they would not have encountered in any other forum. Moreover, many mentioned how useful the presentations and discussion were to particular aspects of their work. Comments such as these indicate that the groundwork is being laid for achieving the goals set out by this activity. Funding for the Third Annual Symposium on Frontiers of Engineering was provided by the National Science Foundation, the U.S. Department of Defense, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The National Academy of Engineering would like to
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--> express its appreciation to these groups for sponsoring the symposium as well as to the members of the Symposium Organizing Committee (see p. iii) for their work in planning and organizing this event.
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--> Contents BIOMECHANICS Overview Janie M. Fouke 3 Biomechanics of Cells and Cell-Matrix Interactions Farshid Guilak 6 Mechanical Influences on Bone Development and Adaptation Marjolein C. H. van der Meulen 12 Implant Design and Technology Avram Allan Edidin 16 SENSORS AND CONTROL FOR MANUFACTURING PROCESSES Emerging Control Structures Angela L. Moran 23 Design and Applications of Optical Fiber Sensors Kent A. Murphy 28 Process Control for Chemical Production: An Industrial Success Story Babatunde A. Ogunnaike 31 SAFETY AND SECURITY ISSUES Air Traffic Control Modeling Kathryn T. Heimerman 41 Quadrupole Resonance Explosive Detection Systems Timothy Rayner 51
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--> The Role of Nondestructive Evaluation in Life-Cycle Management Harry E. Martz 56 Challenges of Probabilistic Risk Analysis Vicki M. Bier 72 DECISION-MAKING TOOLS FOR DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING Variation Risk Management in Product Development Anna C. Thornton 79 Multicriteria Evaluation of Manufacturing Performance Angela Locascio 85 INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS Intelligent Information for Transportation Management Christopher M. Poe 91 Automated Highway Systems Akash R. Deshpande 97 DINNER SPEECH Working Together in the Twenty-First Century Philip M. Condit 105 APPENDIXES Contributors 111 Program 117 Participants 119