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Ind ex A Accidents, 15, 96 automobile, 15, 32-34, 72-73, 87, 106, 108 celebrity victims, 87 residential fires, 96-97 Adolescent drinking, 26, 70-81 minimum drinking ages, 25, 40-41, 47, 48, 56, 72-74, 106 parental responsibilities, 76-77 reasons for, 70-72 schools' role, 74-76, 78-81, 107 traffic accident statistics, 72-73 See also Drinking Advertising, 48, 65, 107 beer and wine, 85, 88 distilled liquor, 83, 85 expenditures, 93-94 industry restraint, 88 strategies and effects, 84-86 taxation of expenditures, 94 See also Mass media; Television programming and advertis- ~ng Age. See Drinking age Air bags, 43, 96, 108 Alcohol Act of 1969 (Finland), 57-58 121 Alcohol and Drug Abuse Com- mittee, 87 Alcohol availability and price, 25, 26, 45-61 consumption relationship, 46- 47, 49-53, 106-107 drunk driving relationship, 40- 41 government regulation, 47-49 limits on availability, 56-59 political considerations, 59-61 price decline, 45-46 tax increases, 53-56 Alcohol Beverage Control (ABC) boards, 49 Alcohol consumption. See Drink- ing Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Men- tal Health Administration, 8 Alcohol Safety Action Projects, 36, 38 Alcoholic beverage industry, 18, 59-60 Alcoholics, discrimination against, 102 Alcoholics Anonymous, 8 Alcoholism, 8-10, 74 Anti-Saloon League, 6-7 Attitude changes

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122 / ALCOHOL IN AMERICA public drunkenness, 101 toward drinking, 4-9, 102-103 toward drunk driving, 38-39 Automobile accidents, 15, 32-34, 72-73, 87, 106, 108 Automobile protective devices, 42-43, 96, 98, 99, 108 air bags, 43, 96, 108 seat belts, 43, 96, 108 B Bartender training, 63-65, 79 See also Server intervention Beer advertisements, 85 ethyl alcohol content, 10 taxes on, 45, 53-54 Blood alcohol concentration (BAC), 11, 15, 96, 100 legal intoxication, 11, 34 Blue Cross/Blue Shield, 102 British Road Safety Act, 35-36 Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, 48, 88 C California, 63-65, 68, 76, 88, 90, 102, 109 Cancer, 16 Cardiovascular diseases, 16 Caucus of Producers, Writers, and Directors, 87, 94 Cigarettes. See Smoking Cirrhosis, 14-15, 51-53, 55 Coast Guard, 99 Coca-Cola Co., 85 Code of Advertising Standards, 88 College programs, 78-81 Colonial period, 4-5, 9 Commercial servers. See Server intervention Consumer Product Safety Com- mission, 97, 98 Consumption of alcohol. See Drinking D Decriminalization of public drunkenness, 100-102 Defense Department, 30, 48 Demonstration Alcohol Educa- tion Project, 78-81 Denmark, 51 de Tocqueville, Alexis, 5 Diabetes, 16 District of Columbia, 48, 65, 72 Dramshop laws, 41, 62-63, 67- 68, 107 Drinking alcohol availability and price effects on, 46-47, 49-53 changes in drinking practices, 3 consumption measurement, 10-13 distribution of alcohol-related problems, 21-24 emotional effects of, 17-18 fatalities related to, 13-18, 87, 96-98 health care costs, 17 health, effects on, 14-15, 16, 17, 19, 51-53, 55 historical and contemporary perspectives, 1, 4-9, 18-19 income-level relationship, 56 metabolism rates, 11 per capita consumption, 2, 13, 46, 50, 106 positive effects, 18-19 See also Adolescent drinking Drinking age, 25, 40-41, 47, 48, 56, 72-74, 106 Drug abuse, 15, 75 Drunk driving, 32-44, 106 alcohol availability effect on, 40-41 alcohol price effect on, 40, 52

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INDEX / 123 arrests effect on, 34-38, 106 automobile protective devices, 42-43 educational campaigns, 41-42 fatality statistics, 15, 32-34, 72-73, 87, 106, 108 penalties effect on, 38-40 E Education programs, 25-26 mass media campaigns, 41-42, 88-94, 108 school programs, 74-76, 78- 81, 107 Eighteenth Amendment, 1, 6 Environmental changes, 26, 95- 103, 108 automobile protective devices. 42-43, 96, 98, 99, 108 government role, 98-100 location and design of drink- ing establishments, 65-67 Environmental Protection Agency, 98 Ethyl alcohol, 10 F Federal Aviation Administration, 99 Fetal alcohol syndrome, 16 Finland, 57-58 Fires, residential, 96-97 Food and Drug Administration, 98 G Government regulation, 27, 30- 31, 69 of alcohol sales, 47-49 Prohibition era, 1-3, 6-8 safety requirements, 98-100 See also Taxation of alcohol HHappy hours, 65 Health, 14-15, 16, 17, 19, 51-53, 55 Health and Human Services, Department of, 30 Health Education Foundation, 65 Homicide, 15 Hours of sale, 47, 48, 56 I Illinois, 109 Insurance policies, 67-68, 102 Internal Revenue Service, 30, 48 Intoxicated customers. See Server intervention Iowa, 63 Ischemic heart disease, 19 L Legal actions, 25 arrests and penalties for drunk driving, 34-40, 106 dramshop laws, 41, 62-63, 67- 68, 107 drinking age, 40-41, 47, 48, 56, 72-74, 106 public drunkenness, 100-102 See also Alcohol availability and price Liability. See Server intervention Liability insurance, 67-68 Licensing systems, 48-49 Liquor, distilled advertisements, 83, 85 ethyl alcohol content, 10 taxes on, 45, 53-54 Liver disease (cirrhosis), 14-15, 51-53, 55 Liver metabolism, 11 M Maryland, 97 Mass media, 24, 26, 39, 82-94

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124 / ALCOHOL IN AMERICA and adolescent drinking, 71-72 advertising strategies and ef- fects, 84-86 conflicting messages, 93-94 drinking images presented by, 82-84, 107 education programs, 41-42, 88-93, 108 industry restraints, 86-88 See also Advertising; Television programming and advertis- ~ng Massachusetts, 65 Massachusetts University, 78-81 Minimum drinking age. See Drinking age Minnesota University, 65 Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD), 30, 64, 65, 73, 109 N National Center for Alcohol Edu- cation, 75 National Clearinghouse for Alco- hol Information, 75 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 64, 73-74, 98 National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 8, 69, 74-75, 93, 100, 110 National Park Service, 30 National Transportation Safety Board, 98, 100 New York, 60, 65, 109 Noncommercial servers, 62 Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 98 o Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 98 Organic brain syndromes, 17 Overdose of alcohol, 15 p Parental responsibilities, 76-77 Pregnancy, and excessive alcohol consumption, 16 Presidential Commission on Drunk Driving, 30 Presidential Task Force on Drunk Driving, 64 Prevention policies, 20-31, 104- 112 current initiatives, 29-31, 109- 112 focus of, 3-4, 20-24, 104-106 objections and barriers to, 27- 29 program elements, 24-26, 106- 109 Price of alcohol. See Alcohol availability and price Prohibition period, 1-3, 6-8, 49, 51, 104 Public drunkenness, 25, 100-102 Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906, 98 R Remove Intoxicated Drivers (RID), 30, 73 Residential fires, 96-97 Road Safety Act of 1967 (Britain), 35-36 S SEA Restaurant Corporation, 68-69 Safety Action Program, 79 San Francisco, 102, 109 School programs, 74-76, 78-81, 107 Seat belts, 43, 96, 108 Server intervention, 25, 62-69 bartender training, 63-65, 79 dramshop laws, 41, 62-63, 67- 68, 107

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INDEX / 125 drunk driving relationship, 41 liability, 67-68 program strategies, 65-69 Shalom program, 76 Small Business Administration, 48 Smoking, 17 cigarette tax, 59 residential fires, 96-97 Social relationships, 18 Spirits. See Liquor, distilled Stanford University, 90 Strokes, 16 Student Opportunity Program, 79 Students Against Drunk Driving (SADD), 30, 73 Suicide, 15 T Taxation of alcohol alcohol consumption relation- ship, 51-53, 106 as major source of government W revenue, 47-48 political considerations, 59-61 Wine static level of, 45, 50 tax increases, 53-56 taxation of advertising expen- ditures, 94 See also Government regulation Teenage drinking. See Adoles- cent drinking Television programming and ad- vertising, 82-84, 86-88, 93, 107 See also Advertising; Mass media Temperance societies and theo- ries, 5-6 Three Community Study, 90-91 Transportation automobile protective devices, 42-43, 96, 98, 99, 108 government role in safety, 99 traffic accident statistics, 15, 32-34, 72-73, 106, 108 Transportation Department, 36, 99 Treatment programs, 24 health insurance, 102 Twenty-first Amendment, 2, 8, 48 V Volstead Act, 7 advertisements, 85, 88 ethyl alcohol content, 10 taxes on, 45, 53-54 Wine Institute, 88, 94 Wisconsin, 64, 67 z Zoning laws, 57

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